ISC Business Studies 2010 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper
The process of communication is successful when the sender receives the feedback from the receiver.
Feedback helps the sender to know whether the message communicated to the receiver has been understood by the receiver properly. Feedback depends upon the type of communication.
In case of oral communication or face-to-face the communication feedback is immediately available and the sender can judge the effectiveness of his message communicated to the receiver immediately
In case of written communication, the feedback is not immediately available to the sender. The receiver may take time in sending response to the sender. Moreover, the sender cannot see the face expressions of the receiver.
(b) Face-to-face communication is the most common form of communication. It is an interaction between two persons. In such communication, one participant plays the role of speaker and the other of listener interchangeably. This form of communication takes place everywhere; individuals in office, business deals, common persons. Face-to-face communication is prompt and the communication can be made clear to the listener.
(c) Advantages of face to face communication
Prompt communication – This communication takes place between two persons and is very prompt since both the listeners and receivers are listening and responding to each other.
Effectiveness – This communication is very effective. If the listener has any doubt, he can get clarification from the speaker at the spot. The solution of the problem can be obtained immediately.
Flexibility – Face to face communication is flexible. The speaker can adjust his message according to place, time. He can explain his message and modify or withdraw the comments.
Immediate Feedback – Immediate feedback and suggestions are available interchangeably to the listener and speaker. The speaker can make the judgement about the effect of communication on the listener.
Secrecy – This communication takes place between two persons, secrecy can be maintained by the persons.
Disadvantages of face to face communication
No Record – This communication takes place between two persons orally. There is no record of such communication.
Legal Validity – This communication suffers from lack of legal validity. Court of law does, not accept this communication as a proof of evidence.
Poor Retention – A listener may not retain the message in his memory for long. The impact of the message is lost after a passage of time.
Responsibility – No responsibility can be fixed on the part of speaker or listener as there is no record available for such communication.
Not Suitable for Lengthy Communication – It is not suitable for lengthy messages. Lengthy explanations are difficult to explain to the listener.
Question 6. (ISC Business Studies 2010)
(a) What is an agenda ? Why is it an essential part of notice?  (b) Explain any five ways in which the sense of a meeting can be ascertained.  Answer 6:
(a) Agenda means a list of issues, plans, mattress, etc. to be considered at a meeting. It is a part of formal notice for a meeting. Without an agenda a notice is treated to be invalid and proposed meeting becomes invalid. Agenda is drafted before meeting.
(b) One of the most important duties of the chairman of a meeting is to ensure that the sense of the meeting is properly and accurately ascertained. It is the duty of the chairman to ascertain the sense of the meeting. Sense of the meeting can be ascertained:
- by conducting the first instance, voting by show of hands.
- by poll, if it is demanded or ordered by him of his own motion.
- Every member or a proxy is given opportunity of exercising the right of voting.
Question 7. (ISC Business Studies 2010)
(a) Discuss the procedure for handling the outgoing mail in a big business concern.  (b) Mention any four mechanical aids associated with the above procedure.  Answer 7:
(a) Outgoing mail means letters which are sent from the office to other departments or persons. Outgoing letters follow the procedure mentioned below :
(A) Drafting of Letters : Drafting is a very important aspect of handling the outgoing mail. An outgoing letter reflects the nature and type of the office. An outgoing letter in itself is an advertisement of the institution. Therefore, it is very important to draft the letter carefully.
Drafting of letters is done after carefully studying the letters to which the reply is to be sent. Drafting of . such letters which are to be sent first time on a particular subject, should be very proper.
While drafting the letters, the following points should be taken proper care of:
- Language of the letters should be clear and humble. Difficult words or confusing words should not be used in the letters.
- Subject matter should be very clear so that it can indicate in a simple line what the letter wants to say.
- Letters should not be unnecessary long. In case of responding letters, it should be noted that necessary contents should not be left out.
- In case of official letters, personal matters should be avoided.
- The draft of the letters (if required) should be got approved from the higher authorities.
(B) Typing of Letters: Once the draft of the letter is approved, it is given to the typist or stenographer for typing the letter. The typist types the letter. While typing the letter(s), the following points should be taken care of:
(i) Typing mistakes should be avoided in the letters. If there is any mistake in the typed word, the wrong word should be erased with the typing eraser or white correcting fluid should be applied on the wrong word and then the correct word should be typed on it. Today in computerised environment in the offices, it is very easy to rectify’ the spelling mistakes in the documents.
(ii) The number of duplicate/carbon copies of the letters should be taken as directed by the drafting official.
(iii) The letters should be typed with proper date; address and alignment of lines and paragraphs.
(iv) Good paper should be used for typing the letter.
(v) Ink of the ribbon of the typewriter should be good so that the main copy of the letter should appear very attractive.
If possible for the office, it should purchase a computer which can be very helpful in typing the letters. A computer is helpful in typing due to its following features :
(i) Multiple copies of the letter can be printed by a single command on the printer installed with the computer.
(ii) There are various word-processing programmes available on the computer which provide facility of:
- Spell checker to remove the typing mistakes. Grammatical improvement is also possible in these programs.
- Paragraph alignment (right, left, centre or justify alignment) can be done in the letters.
- Line spacing in the paragraphs can be done.
- Formatting of letters is possible. Formatting includes highlighting of word/text, italicising and underlining of text or words or selected lines. Size of the characters (called font size) can be increased or decreased as per requirement of the letter.
- Even objects and pictures can be inserted in the documents being typed on the computer.
- The keyboard of a computer is just similar to the key-board of type writer. There is no difficulty for learning the keys of the key-board for a typist.
- The letter or document can be saved on the hard-disk (storage medium) of the computer for future use. In case of need the same letter or document can be retrieved again.
(C) Filing of Letters : After typing of letters, the drafter of the letter reads it and matches with the drafted letter. If there is any mistake in the letter, he erases it with the typing eraser or correcting fluid and marks the proper character or word. Then he puts (files) the letter in the proper file. He puts his initials on the letter and in case the letter is to be dealt at his own end, he puts full signatures on the letter in his official capacity. In case the letter is to be signed by the higher authority, he puts his initials and sends the file to the higher authority or employer.
(D) Signatures on the Letter: After filing the letters, the concerned file is sent to the higher authority for his signatures on the letter. If the contents of the letter are found in order, the higher authority puts full signatures on the letter.
(E) Entering Letters in Register: After the above process the letters are sent to the dispatch clerk who enters the letters in the dispatch register.
There may be different dispatch registers for :
- Ordinary letters.
- Registered letters.
- Courier letters.
The letters are entered in the register according to the format of dispatch register. If the letter is being sent through ordinary post, it is entered in the ordinary dispatch register by mentioning the date of dispatch, subject matter, etc. Postage stamps consumed on the letter are also entered in the register. The dispatch serial number is mentioned both on the main letter (to be sent) and office copy. This dispatch number is mentioned at the place of Reference Number of the letter.
(F) Dispatch Procedure: After entering the letters in the respective dispatch registers, these letters are dealt very carefully.
Ordinary letters are kept separate after entry and the address of the destination is mentioned on the envelope. The letter is inserted inside the envelope and properly sealed. Proper postage stamps are applied on the envelope according to the weight of envelope.
Presently the charges of ordinary mail are as under :
Envelope up to first 20 grams Rs. 5
Next 20 grams and parts thereof Rs. 5
This means that a letter of 21 gms of weight will bear Rs. 10/- postage stamps.
All the ordinary letters are affixed proper stamps and handed over to the dispatch peon for putting them in the letter box.
Registered letters are also entered in the dispatch register and postage stamps affixed on them are mentioned in the dispatch register. All the registered letters are separately handed over to the dispatch peon to get them registered from the post office. Post office issues separate receipts for all registered letters. The peon brings these receipts from the post office and these receipts are.pasted in the dispatch register as a proof of sending the letters through registered post.
Courier letters are also separated by the dispatch clerk. Courier letters are those letters which have to be reached in a short time to the destination. The letters are handed over to the courier service office or they are picked by courier boys from the office itself. Courier boy issues receipts for courier letters. These receipts are preserved by the dispatch clerk.
(b) Mechanical Aids : Various types of mechanical aids are used in the mail room. These aids are described below :
Stapling Machines: Staplers are used in the mail room to sealing (closing) the envelops.
Letter Typing Machines: With the help of typing machine letters (bunch of letters) can be tied together. Letters are kept inside the machine and a thin wire passes around the letters and ties them.
Franklin Machine: Franklin machine is issued by the post office. The postal authorities put a certain value in it (as requested by the office). This machine puts the stamp on the envelope. The value put (entered) in the machine goes on decreasing as more and more stamps are affixed on the envelopes. At one stage the value inserted in the machine is exhausted and the office has to again request the post office to issue a certain limit.
Dating Machines: Dating machines are used to put the dates on the letters. When there is number of letters, these dating machines are very helpful on putting the dates on these letters.
Weighing Machines: A weighing machine is used to ascertain the weight of letters. Post Office charges the postal rates according to the weight of letters. After ascertaining the weight of letters, postage stamps are affixed accordingly.
Serial Numbering Machines: These machines are used to put serial numbers on the letters, despatch register and office copy of the letter. Respective serial numbers can be given on respective places. After putting a serial number as many number of times, the next serial number automatically changes.
Addressograph: It is another mechanical device which is used to print address of the addressees on envelopes and wrappers. This device is very useful in cases where the number of letters are sent regularly. Names and address of the persons are embossed on metallic stencils. The different stencils of addressees are placed in the machine. The machine automatically selects the stencil and prints the address of person on the envelope.
Question 8. (ISC Business Studies 2010)
(a) What are memos ? State two situations in which they can be used effectively.  (b) What are circulars ? Give any two situations in which they are effective.  (c) On behalf of a multinational corporation, draft an interview letter for the post of a management trainee.  Answer 8: (ISC Business Studies 2010)
(a) Meaning — Memorandum in short is known as Memo. Memorandum means a note to assist memory.
Purpose — Memo is used for internal communication between managers and subordinates. It is not used outside the organisation. Memo is used-
- to issue instructions to the staff members.
- to give / seek suggestions from the employees.
- to communicate policy matters and changes to the staff members.
- to seek explanation from an employee to explain his conduct.
- to intimate grant of permission to do something.
- to intimate grant of permission to withhold something.
(b) A circular letter is one which is sent out to many people at the same time used both within organization and for sending out information from organizations. The letter may be prepared once only and then duplicated. With modem technology, however, it is more likely that each letter could be personalized to look like an original also called an open letter.
Situations that need Circulars: Situations that need circulars introduce a new product/service, opening of new branch, change of address, seasonal discounts, increase in price, etc. obtaining an agency, change in constitution of the firm.
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