ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
Allocation of Portfolios : It is an undisputed privilege of the Prime Minister to allocate portfolios to his ministers. Which particular department shall be entrusted to which minister is determined by him. Any minister objecting to such an allotment only invites the wrath of the Prime Minister and can get completely ignored for the ministry.
Reshuffling of Portfolios : The Prime Minister has the power to shuffle and reshuffle his ministry at any time. It is his privilege to make changes in his ministry. He can make any change if in his judgement it is required for bringing effectiveness, efficiency and discipline in the administration. He has the unfettered right to review, from time to time, the allocation of portfolios and make changes whenever and wherever desirable.
Chairman of the Cabinet : The Prime Minister is the leader of the Cabinet. He presides over its meetings. He decides the agenda of its meetings. In fact, all matters are decided in the Cabinet with the approval and consent of the Prime Minister. It is up to him to accept or reject items, issues and proposals for discussions in the cabinet. All ministers conform to his views and policies. There is scope for deliberations and discussions but not for dissension and opposition. Any minister, not finding his policy acceptable, has no choice except to submit his resignation.
Removal of Ministers : The Prime Ministers can demand resignation from any minister at any time and the latter has always to accept the wishes of the former. However, if at any time a minister does not resign even on the asking of the Prime Minister, he can either get him dismissed by the President or can submit his own resignation which in fact, means the resignation of his whole Council of Ministers. He being still the leader of the majority party, can again be invited by the President to form his ministry and obviously he can drop that minister from his new team. No one can remain a minister against the wishes of the Prime Minister.
Chief Link between the President and the Cabinet : The Prime Minister is the main channel of communication between the President and the Cabinet. He communicates to the President all decisions that arrive at in the Cabinet, and puts before the Cabinet the views of the President. Prime Minister keeps the President informed of all affairs of the Government. This is the sole privilege of the Prime Minister and no other minister can, on his own convey the decisions or reveal to the President the nature or summary of the issues discussed in the Cabinet.
Coordinator-in-Chief : The Prime Minister acts as the general manager of the state and the chief coordinator. It is his responsibility to co-ordinate the activities of all the departments and to secure co-operation amongst all departments. He resolves the differences, if any, among the ministers and ensures the working of each ministry without coming into conflict and clash with other ministries. If there is any crisscross of functions, he irons out the differences. He ensures mutual understanding and team spirit among ministers. The Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) always acts under the authority of the Prime Minister.
Leader of the Parliament : The Prime Minister, as the leader of the Lok Sabha, is also the leader of the Parliament. It is he who decides, in consultation with the Speaker of . the Lok Sabha, the complete agenda of the House. The summoning and the proroguing of Parliament is in fact decided upon by him. The President acts upon his advice.
(a) Explain any eight salient features of the judiciary in U.K.  (b) Explain any six steps that should be taken to ensure the independence of the judiciary.  Answer 7:
(b) Judiciary is the most important organ of the government. Lord Bryce says that if the lamp of justice goes off, we cannot imagine how much the darkness would be. The independence of judiciary is the essential condition for the success of democracy. Following are the steps for ensuring the independence of judiciary.
The appointment of judges should be free from political interference. It should be done on the basis of merit through a well laid down and transparent procedure.
The salary and other perks of members of judiciary should not be subject to approval of political authority. It should not be liable to be reduced to their disadvantage.
The process for removal of judges should be difficult and it should not be in the hands of political executive. Usually, judges are removed by impeachment motion passed with special majority in the legislature.
The fixed and long tenure of judges also ensures their independence.
The judiciary should have full control over the judicial administration, which carries out its responsibility.
The judiciary should have the power to determine the rules of procedure to conduct its business.
Judiciary should be vested with the power to punish the guilty for the contempt of court. The orders of judiciary should be given full respect, throughout the country.
The judges should not be allowed to hold any official position after their retirement.
(a) Explain the caste and gender based inequality in India. What is the impact of these social inequalities on the Indian democratic system ?  (b) Discuss any six forms of political violence in India.  Answer 8:
(a) The challenge of social inequality can be analyzed in two parts
- Caste based Social Inequality and
- Gender Inequality.
Caste based Social Inequality : Indian society has been a caste-based society and social inequality exists as inequality between the upper castes or swam caste Hindus and the so called low caste Hindus. Indian social system stands still divided into two broad divisions : High castes and Low castes. Some parts of India like Bihar and UP still have caste wars. The Constitution of India has granted and guaranteed the fundamental right to equality which clearly lays down that there shall be no discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, creed, religion, place of birth and sex. Untouchability stands constitutionally prohi-bited and now this evil practice has become a crime punishable by law.
Single uniform citizenship, equal rights and freedoms, Universal Adult Franchise and single electorate, have been the foundational principles of Indian Democracy. Further, Indian state has been directed to take special steps for the protection of the interests of weaker sections of society. A system of reservations of seats in the legislatures, and admissions in educational institutions, and Government and private sector for the people belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes (OBC’s) has been in operation for the last six decades. Originally, Indian society got stratified in 4 basic castes : Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudras. Later on, these got divided into a very large number of castes and sub-castes based on family and characterized by the so called higher and lower divisions involving rigid and violent inter¬actions. Till today, Indian society continues to be a caste ridden society.