ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
The most unfortunate development has been caste based violence. Atrocities are committed on caste grounds. Each year several thousand cases of atrocities against the people belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Dalits) are committed. There are caste based political parties, caste interest groups, caste- based voting, and caste-based selection of candidates for contesting elections, caste-based policies and decisions, caste violence, caste discrimination’s, continuous menace posed by the illegal and inhuman practice of untouchability.
Gender Inequality : Indian Society continues to be a male dominated society in which women continue to live with certain inequalities and exploitation’s. The Constitution of India grants equal fundamental rights to all the citizens, both men and women, and holds that there is to be no discrimination on the basis of gender. Women are to enjoy equal opportunities for development as are enjoyed by men. Article 39 of the Constitution of India calls upon the state to provide adequate means of livelihood to men and women.
Article 51 A makes it a duty of every citizen to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women. There is to be equal pay for equal work. The state has been also directed to take special steps for protecting the interests of weaker sections of society, women and children. The state has in fact passed several laws for ensuring a better protection and development of women e.g., Special Marriage Act, 1954, Hindu Code Bill 1955, Indian Succession Act 1956, Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Bill 1956, Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, The Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1983 and Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act.
The 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts have given 30% reservations to women in Panchayati Raj and Urban Local Government institutions. In 2006, the state enforced an act aimed at preventing domestic violence against women. All Five Year Plans have been giving special attention for securing the objective of empowerment of women.
However, unfortunately, women in India continue to face several types of discrimination’s. Female foeticide represents the ugliest face of this type of discrimination.
(b) Various forms of violence in India are as follows:
Linguistic Violence : Love for one’s language, which symbolises love for one’s culture, is something very natural as well as an essential feature of human thinking. However, a blind and aggressive love for one’s language involving national faith in its superiority always acts as a potent source of violence. Unfortunately linguistic violence has been continuously present in Indian politics. Hindi agitations, English Vs. Hindi agitations, violent agitations for securing the creation of linguistic states and opposition to the development of Hindi as a national language, have been present in Indian polity. These agitations have been a source of violence.
Caste Conflict and Violence : In some of the states of India, particularly in Bihar and U.P. several caste-based groups and organisations have been in existence. These have been engaged in violent activities. Some high caste organisations have been committing violence against the so called low caste groups and in retaliation the latter have been doing the same. The politics of reservations Vs. anti-reservations has been a source of violence in Indian politics. Caste has been a major factor of Indian society and politics and it has been a source of caste conflict and violence.
Politics of Violent Agitations : Several Political parties and interest groups have been actively present in Indian politics. Unfortunately however, these resort to direct action means like strikes, dharnas, bandhas and public demonstrations. Quite often their agitations have been taking the form of violent agitations. Burning of trains, platforms, public property and even private property is often used by them as a means of protest against the government.
Social Violence : In general, caste violence, communal violence and infact all other forms of violence come under the category of social violence because all the violent activities take place in the social environment. Several evil social customs have been acting as a source of violence against women. Indian women continue to be a weak class. In the family, the girl child faces discrimination and even violence. In the name of some ancient traditions, some fundamentalist religious and caste groups have been even supporting the cases of discrimination and violence against women. Social violence always act as a potent source of political violence.
Political Violence : Indian politics has been living with violence. Murder of political leaders and opponents has been a sad reality. Two Prime Ministers of India had to face deaths inflicted by political violence. It has been indeed very unfortunate that in the land of Buddha, Nanak and Gandhi, violence continues to live. The criminalisation of politics due to entry of criminals in politics as well as due to the adoption of violence as means by some unscrupulous political leaders has been a major reason behind the increasing presence of violence in politics.
6. Electoral Violence : The International Foundation for Eelctoral Systems (IFES) defines electoral violence as any harm or threat of harm to any person or properly involved in the election process, or the process itself, during the election period. Several political parties have been continuously involved in electoral politics and the struggle for power. However, unfortunately, along with the popularity of elections in India, the emergence of electoral violence has been a sad development. Violence against the contesting candidates and their supporters has come to be a grim reality. On the polling day, despite the presence of security forces in large number, electoral violence takes place.
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