Skeleton Movement and Locomotion Concise ICSE Class-9 Selina Solutions
Selina Publications Biology Chapter-12 Skeleton
(vi) Storehouse for minerals:
The bones are a storehouse of calcium and phosphorus for the rest of the body.
What are the different types of joints? Give one example of each type.
|Types of joints||Example|
|Immovable joint||Skull bones|
|Partially movable joint||Joints between vertebrae|
|Freely movable joint||Hip joint|
|Gliding joint||Ankle bones|
|Pivot joint||Joint between atlas and axis vertebrae|
|Ball and socket joint||Shoulder joint|
What is the difference between ligament and tendon? What are their functions?
Answer 3 difference between ligament and tendon
|1. Ligament connects two or more bones together.||1. Tendon connects muscle to a bone.|
|2. They are elastic.||2. They are inelastic.|
|3. They are arranged freely.||3. They are arranged in bundles.|
|4. They are formed of yellow or elastic fibres.||4. They are formed of white or collagen fibres.|
|1. They help to stabilize joints.||1. They carry tensile forces from muscle to bone.|
|2. Prevent dislocation||2. Attach muscles to portions of the skeleton.|
What are bones made of? Are the bones living or non living? Give reasons.
(i) Bone is a strong, hollow and non-flexible connective tissue.
(ii) It is hard, greyish-white tissue, composed of 2/3rd of inorganic substances or minerals like calcium, phosphorus, carbonates, etc. and 1/3rd of organic substances.
(iii) The outer surface of the bone is called periosteum. Periosteum is a thin, dense membrane that consists of outer fibrous and inner cellular layer, nerves and blood vessels that nourish the bone.
(iv) The next layer is made up of compact bone. This part is highly calcified, very hard and rigid connective tissue. This tissue gives bones a smooth, white and solid appearance.
Feature of Bone
(v) The middle layer of bone consists of bone cells called osteocytes, which are arranged in the form of concentric rings. They are embedded in a hard matrix made up of collagen fibre and mineral deposits.
(vi) The innermost hollow cavity of long bones contains bone marrow, which produces blood cells. Red bone marrow is present at the ends of the bone and produces majority of red blood cells, platelets and most of the white blood cells. Yellow bone marrow contains higher amount of fat cells than red marrow and helps in the production some white blood cells.
(vii) Bones are living tissue as long as they are present in the living body. However, when they are taken out of the body, their cells die and the bones are then said to be dead.
Given below is a diagram of human skeleton. Name the bones numbered 1-11.
1: Cranium/Skull; 2: Clavicle, Scapula; 3: Sternum; 4: Humerus:
5: Ulna; 6: Coccyx; 7: Ribs; 8: Radius; 9: Femur; 10: Fibula; 11: Tibia
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