Food Production ICSE Class-8th Concise Selina Biology

Cultivation methods of Kharif crops:


After preparing the fields for growing the rice crop the seeds are thrown in the fields. This method is adopted in the areas where there is less of rain. The fields are not flooded with water. This method is being adopted in China and Japan.



In this method seeds are dropped at regular interval in the furrows made by the plough.


Here the seeds are soaked for 24 hours. The seeds get sprouted. Then these seeds are transferred to nurseries. Here the seeds grow and attain a height of 6” to 9” and then these seedlings are transferred to specially prepared flooded fields which have been properly ploughed. Then those seedlings start growing in the fields are watered and manured from time to time. Then the crop matures and ultimately for ripening they require a temperature ranging from 16°C to 20°C. When the crop become fully ripe and plants become golden yellowish, then the crop is harvested manually or with the help of combines.

Question 7.

Name the two main crop seasons of India. Give three examples of the crops grown during each season.
The two main crops seasons in India are:

  1. Kharif season: The rainy season is from July to October and is known as the Kharif Season. The chief kharif crops are the milles, known as Bajra and Jowar, Paddy, Maize, Cotton.
  2. Rabi season: The winter season is from November to April and is known as rabi season. Wheat, Gram, Peas, Linseed and Mustard are important rabi crops.

Question 8.

List the uses of bacteria in the food industry.
The bacterial action is involved in the following industrial processes.

  1. In the manufacture of vinegar, butter and cheese.
  2. The process of tanning hides in leather making and preparing sponges.
  3. The separation of flax and hemp fibres which are used for making linen cloth and ropes.
  4. Fermentation of green plants for the production of ensilage for animal food.
  5. Bacteria are used for forming lactic acid, vinegar, citric acid, and vitamins.
  6. For formation of antibiotics, serums and vaccines, vitamin B complex.

Question 9.

Name any one variety of edible mushrooms.
White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporous) and paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella) the two varieties of edible mushrooms.
Five major steps in cultivation of the common edible mushroom are as below:



The compost is prepared by mixing the following in certain proportions.

Wheat or paddy straw,

Chicken manure

Some organic and inorganic fertilizer
This compost is kept at about 50°C for a week.


mushroom seed” consisting of mycelium of the selected type of mushroom is introduced into the compost, and allowed to spread for a couple of days.


A thin layer of soil is spread over the compost to give support to the mushroom and provide humidity. It also prevents quick drying of the compost and helps to regulate temperature.

Cropping and Harvesting:

The growth occurs in three stages:
(a) Mycelium (a network of fibrous mass) grows within 2 to 6 weeks.
(b) Tiny pin heads.
(c) Button stage which grows bigger attaining marketable size.
The full grown mushrooms are taken out.


Mushrooms are highly perishable. Their shelf life is increased by a variety of processes
(a) Vacuum cooling
(b) Giving gamma radiation and storing at 15°C
(c) Freeze drying in a solution of citric acid, ascorbic acid and brine, etc.

Question 10.

Mention the benefits of “Green revolution” in our country.
Green revolution: Knowledge of science has brought about manifold increase in the production of grains, pulses and other crops and led to green revolution. Factors leading to it are:


  1. development of high – yielding varities.
  2. development of early – maturing varities.
  3. disease – resistant varities.
  4. using of fertilizers and pesticides.
  5. development of drought – resistant and dwarf varities.

Dr. M.S. Swaminathan is known as the father of green revolution in India which has led to manifold increase in the production of wheat and rice using hybrid varities (wheat – Kalyan Sona and Sonalika, Rice – IR – 8 Padma, Jaya and Pusa 215, Maize – Ganga 101 and Rankit).

Question 11.

Mention the benefits of “White revolution” in our country.
The benefits of “White Revolution” in our country:

  1. The purpose of this programme was to link the rural producer (dairy farmer) with the urban consumer.
  2. Rural farmer co-operatives were organized at the village level and connected to the urban consumer.
  3. It ensured that the dairy farmer got a major share of the price of milk which consumers pay.

The “Operation flood” ensured thre objectives:

  1. increased milk production
  2. strengthened the dairy farmer’s income.
  3. easy availability of milk at a fair price to all.

Question 12.

Write briefly the processes of

  1. wine (alcohol) making and
  2. bread making.


The steps for making

  1. Wine (alcohol): Wine is usually made from grapes. The grapes are crushed and the juice is extracted. The juice contains sugar and wild yeast.The yeast ferments the sugar and gradually turns it into alcohol.
  2. Bread: Mix some flour and water with a small amount of sugar and yeast. This makes dough. Then leave the dough for an hour or so in a warm place. During this period the living yeast cells multiply and fermenting sugar to form alcohol give off carbon dioxide gas. The gas so produced makes the dough rise, more or less doubling its size. Then when you bake the dough in a hot oven: the heat kills the yeast and evaporates the alcohol.

Question 13.

Give any five features of good shelter for milch animals.

  1. Animal shelter should be very clean, well ventilated and well-lit.
  2. Cattle should have proper sheds, so that animals are safe from rain, cold and heat.
  3. The floor should have a proper sloping so that urine and excreta can be disposed of easily.
  4. Animals should have proper feeding and drinking tubs.
  5. Animal shelter should be spacious and there should not be over crowding.
  6. It should have arrangements for clean fresh drinking water.
  7. The shelter should give protection from predators.
  8. Shelter should be located away from the residential areas and waste disposal sites.

Question 14.

What type of food you would suggest for cattle in order to get good quality of milk ?
Cattle should be given good quality type of food which is proper for their growth, development, health and for their maintenance. Animal food is feed.
This cattle feed has two types of substances.

  1. Roughage: The animals get roughage from hay (straw of cereals), berseem, cowpea, lucerne, silage, maize, bajra and other green plants.
    These plants generally provide fibrous substances and other minerals.
  2. Concentrates: These are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins, concentrates are given by.
    • Grains and seeds of bajra, maize, rye, gram, cotton, jowar, barley. These provide carbohydrates.
      Legume seeds and cotton seeds provide proteins and fats.
    • Oil cakes: These oil cakes are very good feed for the animals. These are formed from the remains of oil seeds after we get the oil from the seeds. We get oil cakes from the seeds of cotton, mustard.
    • Molasses are rich in proteins.
    • Wheat bran, rice bran, and gram bran also give concentrates.


— : end of  Food Production Solutions :–

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