ISC History 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved

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ISC History 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved for practice. Step by step Solutions with Questions of Part-1 and 2 (Section-A and B). By the practice of History 2014 Class-12 Solved Previous Year Question Paper you can get the idea of solving.

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ISC History 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved


-: Select Your Topics :-

 Part-I

Sections-A of Part-II

Section-B of Part-II


Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours

  • Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
  • Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A, two
  • questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
  • The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].

Part-I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions

ISC History 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved

Question 1. [20]
(i) Name the two festivals started by Tilak to propagate radical nationalist ideas among the people
(ii) What is the historical importance of the Calcutta Town Hall in the context of the partition of Bengal in 1905.
(iii) Name two leaders who popularized the idea of the Home Rule Movement in India.
(iv) Which agreement signified the reunion of the two wings of the Congress in 1916 ?
(v) Why did a large number of people assemble of Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April, 1919 ?
(vi) Name two prominent leaders of the No Changers of the Congress.
(vii) What is the historical significance of the Lahore Session of the Muslim League in 1940 ?
(viii) Who was popularly known as Frontier Gandhi ?
(ix) State the proposal in the Mountbatten Plan with regard to the princely states.
(x) Mention one cause of dispute between India and Pakistan after 1947.
(xi) Name the independent volunteer military regiments that helped the Weimar Government to suppress the Spartacist Rising.
(xii) Name the agreement signed between Mussolini and the Pope.
(xiii) Why did Hitler’s first attempt at an Anschluss between Germany and Austria ‘ fail ?
(xiv) What do you understand by the term Appeasement ?
(xv) Name the signatories of the Pact of Steel (1939).
(xvi) Name the technique used by the German armies as they swiftly overran Europe (1939-1949).
(xvii) Why was the Berlin Wall erected in 1961 ?
(xviii) Give any one reason why Britain eventually decided to join the EEC in 1961.
(xix) Which Asiatic country has the right to use the veto power in the Security Council ?
(xx) What is the Balfour Declaration ?
Answer  1:
(i) At the Lahore session in 1940, The League under Jinnah stated that the scheme of Federation embodied in the Government of India Act was unacceptable to the Muslim League. Further, it emphasized the need of territorial readjustments and demarcation of the geographically contiguous units.

(ii) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan also called as Bacha Khan was popularly known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’. Fie was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi and his ideals.

(iii) According to the Mountbatten plan, the Princely States were given the option of joining either of the two Dominions, which is, India or Pakistan or they might also choose to remain independent.

(iv) The Mountbatten plan regarding the Princely states led to the Kashmir conflict. After Independence, Pakistan claimed Kashmir due to the presence of large Muslim population but the ruler of Kashmir, Maharaja Flari Singh joined India by signing the ‘Instrument of Accession.’

(v) Treaty of Lateran in 1929.

(vi) Italy had prevented Germany rom achieving the Anchuluss in 1934.

(vii) ‘Appeasement’ is a diplomatic policy of giving political concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid aggression and conflicts. The policy of Appeasement was used by France and Britain to avoid war with Germany and Italy.

(viii) Pact of steel was the military and political alliance signed between Italy and Germany in 1939.

(ix) The Military tactic used by Germany during the first phase of World War II to overrun Europe was the ‘Blitzkrieg’ (Lightning War) that required the use of heavy weapons such as armoured tanks and artillery including the expensive use of planes along a narrow front.

(x) The Berlin Wall was erected in 1961 by East Germany’s Communist authorities to prevent mass immigration from East Germany to West Berlin. This wall completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany by land.

(xi) A steep rate of the economic decline of the total percentage of British exports sold on Commonwealth markets eventually led Britain to join EEC in 1961.

(xii) China, being a permanent member of the UN Security Council has the right to use Veto power in the Security Council.

(xiii) On November 2, 1917, the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour publicly declared his support for the creation of a separate Jewish homeland in Palestine in a letter to Lord Rothschild, a wealthy and influential Jew in America. This public assertion is known as ‘Balfour Declaration’.


Part—II (60 Marks)

ISC History 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved

Answer five questions in all, choosing two questions from Section A, two questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.

Section—A

Question 2.
The conditions for the emergence of radical nationalism developed when Bengal was divided into two halves in 1905. With reference to this statement, answer the following :
(a) Why was Bengal partitioned in 1905 ? [4]
(b) The anger and indignation of the people of Bengal found expression in the launch and development of the Anti-Partition Movement. Explain. [8]
(c) Briefly discuss the role played by the students and women in the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement. [4]

Question 3.
Communalism (1885-1919) posed the biggest threat to the unity of the Indian people and the national movement. In this context, answer the following :
(a) What role did Sayyid Ahmed Khan play in the rise of communal sentiments in India ? [6]
(b) Give examples to show that the communal tinge in the ideas and activities of some of the Radical Nationalists were also responsible for the rise of communalism. [6]
(c) In what way was the Lucknow Pact of 1916 a significant milestone in the history of Hindu- Muslim unity ? [4]

Question 4.
The Gandhian phase from 1919-1922 was marked by various political events which gave rise to popular movements. In this context, answer the following :
(a) Why was the Khilafat Movement launched in 1919 ? [4]
(b) Trace the development of the Non-Cooperation Movement from 1920-1922. [8]
(c) What led to the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 ? [4]

Question 5.
Many significant developments in the Indian National Movement took place during the course of the Second World War. In this context answer the following :
(a) Under what national and international circumstances was the Cripps Mission sent to India in 1942. State any four proposals announced by Cripps. [6]
(b) Mention three important reasons for the rejection of his proposals. What was the outcome of this rejection ? [4]
(c) Give an account of the revival of the IN A and its contribution to India’s struggle for freedom under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose. [6]
Answer 5.
(a) After the Government of India Act, 1935 was passed; the Congress Ministers resigned. The August Declaration of 1940 by Lord Linlithgow too failed to meet the expectations of the Indian leaders and the people of the country. So, the Cripes Mission was sent to India in March 1942 under the leadership of Sir Stafford Cripes to seek co-operation of India to the British war efforts in the Second World War. Japan had become a threat for England. She had conquered Malaya, Burma and Singapore, and had reached the frontiers of India. This victory of the Japanese worried the British. There was external pressure from the U.S. and China on the British Government to make settlement with India in order to seek her support in the war. So, to win the support of the Indians in war and also to pacify them, stopped Cripes was sent to India.

The main proposals of the Cripes Mission were :

  1. Dominion status would be granted to India after the war. She would be free to remain in the Commonwealth or opt out of it.
  2. Immediately after the war, a constitution making body would be set up comprising members from the British India and the Native states.
  3. To join the Indian Union or to stay out would be entirely the choice of the princely states. .
  4. The actual control of defense and military operations during the war period would be retained by the British Government.
  5. A treaty would be signed between the constitution making body and the British Government covering all subjects regarding transfer of power including the rights of the minorities.

(b) Both the Congress and the League rejected the proposals due to the following reasons :

  1. The Congress opposed the plan which aimed at a division of the country.
  2. The power of the Viceroy remained unchanged as he was still responsible for defense affairs.
  3. No provision was made for the people of princely states to send their representatives to the constitution making body.
  4. Self-government seemed to be a long-term affair. Gandhiji condemned it as a ‘post-dated cheque on a crashing bank.’
  5. The Muslims rejected the proposal as it did not ensure creation of Pakistan and fifty percent of the seats for the Muslim League with the Congress in the Interim Government. Hence, the Cripes Mission failed to pacify the Indians.

Outcome of the rejection or the major event that followed its failure :
The failure of Cripps Mission asserted that the British Government was not ready to transfer power to Indians. There was hardly any possibility of a consensus between the Congress and the British. Gandhiji lost trust in the British and his attitude towards them altered. The Congress also felt that the British were reluctant to concede to India the right to self-government. So, Gandhiji launched his ‘Quit India Movement 1942’.

(c) Subhash Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army : When the Quit India Movement was losing its momentum, the struggle for Indian freedom was going on outside India under a different leadership given by Subhash Chandra Bose.

Subhash Chandra Bose had difference of opinion with Gandhiji regarding the Indian . National Movement which made him leave the Congress and start his own struggle for freedom. Bose was arrested by the British Government in 1939. In 1941, however, he escaped from India to Berlin to secure German help for India’s independence, but very soon he felt that Germany was not interested in helping him to achieve his goal. So, he left for Japan to organise an armed struggle against the British rule with Japanese help.

Rash Behari Bose, an Indian revolutionary, was living in Japan since 1915. He wanted to mobilise Indians for an armed struggle against the British. He mobilised the Indian soldiers who were defeated by the Japanese while fighting on behalf of the British army. Subhash Chandra Bose was now invited to lead the movement. He came to Tokyo in June 1943. Ultimately he reached Singapore on July 2, 1943 where he was handed over the leadership of the Azad Hind Fauj or the Indian National Army. Subhash now became known as Netaji, the supreme leader of the Azad Hind Fauj. 40,000 Indian soldiers who had been taken prisoners by Japan now turned into patriots and liberators under Subhash.

Netaji set up the Provisional Government of India in Singapore on October 21st, 1943. Besides himself, A.C. Chatterjee, S.A. Nyer and Mrs. Lakshi Swami-nathan were sworn in as cabinet ministers. This Provisional Government declared war on British and America.

The Provisional Government was recognised by Japan, Germany, Italy, Nationalist China, Burma and Thailand. The Andaman and Nicobar islands were handed over by Japan to the Provisional Government of India and were renamed Shaheed and Swaraj Islands.

The overseas Indians contributed generously with money and materials for the army. Netaji now gave his famous calls ‘Jai Hind’ and ‘Dilli Chalo’. The most famous declaration of Subhash Chandra was ‘Turn mujhe khoon do, main tumhen azadi doonga’ (you give me blood, I will give you freedom). The INA later joined the Japanese army in its March on India from Burma. They crossed the Indian Frontier on March 18, 1944 and the Indian tri-colour national flag was hoisted in Kohima (Nagaland).

The INA captured Kohima on March 18,1944. The Japanese Military command was all praises for the valour and patriotism of the INA. The INA had to withdraw due to torrential rains, short supplies, lack of air support and losses inflicted by the American bombers.

Japan was finally defeated and the INA had to surrender. Subhash Chandra Bose and his comrade, Habib-ur-Rehman, escaped. It is believed that while on their way to Tokyo their plane crashed and Subhash Chandra Bose died. This brought to an end the activities of the INA. ‘

Question 6.
(a) Discuss the process of integration of the princely states with the Indian Union with special reference to : [8]
(i) Hyderabad
(ii) Junagarh
(b) Name the chief architects of NAM. [4]
(c) Mention any four principles of Panchsheel. [4]
Answer 6:
(a) During the British rule, there were more or less five hundred sixty five (565) princely states covering an area of 7,15,964 square miles and according to 1941 census, inhabited by 93,182,233 people. These princely states were the bulwark of the British power. But none of them enjoyed the attributes of independent sovereignty. After the independence, there were two alternatives left before them either to join India or Pakistan or to maintain their own independent status like before, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel now headed the new States Department which was created on July 5, 1947. Naturally he was empowered to have talks with the rulers of those native states.

After a long discussion, by August 15, 1947, all the native states except Jammu and Kashmir, Junagarh and Hyderabad had signed the Instrument of Accession to become a part of Indian Union. Most of the princess surrendered the Defence, Communications and External Affairs which they had never enjoyed in reality. The Instrument of Accession thus, brought no change in the internal structure of those native states.

The most ambitious prince, the Nizam of Hyderabad, declared to remain independent from the date of transfer of power. The Hindus of Hyderabad also revolted against the Nizam. The adamant attitude of the Nizam compelled the Government of India to interfere and apply force. The Indian Army was directed to take action and within five days the Indian army took complete control of Hyderabd. In 1948, Hyderabad became a part of the Indian Union.

The Nawab of Junagarh expressed his desire to join Pakistan though a large number of Hindus lived there. They strongly opposed the decision of the Nawab and set up a temporary independent government there. The Nawab fled to Pakistan in 1948 and on the request of the people, the administration of Junagarh was taken over by the Government of India.

(b) The chief architects of the NAM (Non – Aligned Movement) were Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; President of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser; and Yugoslavian President, Josip Broz Tito. The other architects were Indonesian President, Sukarno and Ghana President, Kwame Nkrumah.

(c) Panchsheel or peaceful co-existence was adopted at the Bandung conference. Four principles of Panchsheel are :

  • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  • Mutual non-aggression.
  • Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
  • Equality for mutual benefit.
  • Peaceful co-existence.

Section—B

Answer any two questions.

ISC History 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved

Question 7.
In 1919, Benito Mussolini formed the Italian fascist party and gradually assumed the powers of a dictator. In this context, answer the following :
(a) What were the main features of the Fascist State under Mussolini ? [10]
(b) What benefits did the Italians get from the government in the early years of Fascist rule ? [6]

Question 8.
The 1930’s witnessed the collapse of international order. In this context discuss the following :
(a) The. political and economic reasons for the growth of militarism in Japan in the 1930’s. [10]
(b) The causes, events and results of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931). [6]

Question 9.
The debate on who or what was responsible for the Second World War is still going on. In the context answer the following :
(a) Why did Britain and France follow the Appeasement Policy ? To what extent was this policy responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War ? [8]
(b) The victory of the Allied powers in the battle of El Alamein was a major turning point in the Second World War. Explain. [4]
(c) How did the battle of Midway Island prove to be a crucial turning point in the battle for the Pacific ? [4]
Answer 9:
(a) In May 1937 to September 1939 when Second World War broke out, the policy adopted by British Prime Minister was viewed as a policy of Appeasement. Appeasement means “acceding to hostile demands in order to gain peace.” This policy was adopted by Britain and France in 1930’s towards Germany and focused on their own economic problems. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of Britain believed that the Treaty of Versailles was unjust towards Germany. Many politicians also, therefore, thought that German aggression was obvious.

Great Britain and France were mistaken in their assessment. On 12 March, 1938, Hitler invaded Austria and annexed it to Germany. After annexation of Austria, Germany demanded that Czechoslovakia should return Sudetenland. Hitler also threatened that if his demands were not satisfied, he would declare war. Hitler’s demands were unreasonable but due to the policy of Appeasement, Hitler’s demands were conceded. This encouraged Germany to be more aggressive and eventually the Second World War broke out.

(b) The Battle of El Alamein – October 1942 : The battle of EL Alamein in North Africa between the Allied and Axis powers occupies an important plane in the course of World War II. Italy, under Mussolini, also declared war upon the Allied powers after the fall of France. Italians had opened battle fronts in Africa with the desire to capture the British colonies in North Africa along with Egypt and the Suez Canal. Italian troops attacked Greece where they faced tough resistance from the Allied powers and finally made a hasty retreat. They tried to conquer Libya in North Africa but could not stand before the British troops who drove them out. The British army took possession of the African colonies of Italy like Eritrea, Abyssinia and Cyrenaica.

In 1940, Italy invaded Egypt. For two years fighting went on in Libya and Egypt. Australia, New Zealand, India and South Africa had also sent their troops in Libya and Egypt to fight alongside the British troops and keep the Axis powers out of Egypt. The control of Egypt by the Axis powers had cut off Britain from oil fields in the Middle-east and from the Suez canal, the shortest sea-route to Asia. Britain struck back at the Italians in ‘ December 1940, sweeping them out of Egypt and back into Libya.

Early in 1941, Hitler came to the help of Mussolini and sent tank units trained in desert warfare under the leadership of General Erwin Rommel, nick-named the ‘Desert Fox’ because of his clever war tactics most effective in a desert region of war. He came to the help of the Italians in Northern Africa. During spring, Rommel recaptured Libya and drove into Egypt. The British again pushed back the Axis forces into Libya. In May, 1942, Rommel broke through British lines in El Alamein, only 320 miles from the Suez Canal. The British commander General Montogomery defeated Rommel’s army at El Alamein in 1942. This victory was very important for the Allies.

The African project of Mussolini thus, failed and proved to be a prelude to Mussolini’s fall. The victory at El Alamein had following far reaching consequences in the course of the Second World War:

  1. Egypt and the Suez canal were saved from falling into the German hands.
  2. The possibility of union between the Axis forces in the Middle-east and in Ukraine was thus prevented.
  3. The victory at El Alamein completed the expulsion of the Axis forces from North Africa.

(c) Midway Island proved to be a crucial turning point in the battle of Pacific:

  1. The loss of their carriers and strike planes seriously weakened the Japanese,
  2. and from then on the Americans maintained their lead in carriers and aircraft, especially dive-bombers.
  3. Although the Japanese had far more battleships and cruisers, they were mostly ineffective.
  4. the only way that war could be waged successfully in the vast expanses of the Pacific was by air power operating from carriers.
  5. Gradually the Americans under General MacArthur began to recover the Pacific Islands, beginning in August 1942 with landings in the Solomon Islands. The struggle was long and bitter and continued through 1943 and 1944 by a process known as ‘island hopping’.

Question 10.
(a) Explain the development of the Cold War with reference to the following :
(i) The Potsdam conference. [4]
(ii) The formation of NATO. [4]
(b) Give an account of. the crisis in east-west
relations in the context of:
(i) The Berlin Wall incident. [4]
(ii) The Cuban missile crisis. [4]
Answer 10:
(a) The Potsdam Conference : After the surrender of Germany, a conference was held at Potsdam, in Germany by the Allied powers Britain, Soviet Union and the U.S. The main subject of discussion at Potsdam was Germany. At this conference, an agreement was reached on banning fascist organizations, destruction of military power of Germany, reorganization and division’of Germany into four occupation zones. The council of foreign ministers set up at Potsdam Conference signed treaties with Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland but no agreement could be arrived at on the question of Germany and Japan. The disagreement over Poland and the differences over Germany became a major source of conflict between the West bloc and Soviet Union.

Formation of NATO : The war war brought to an end on 10th August without Russian Help.

  1. The NATO was formed in April 1949.
  2. The Berlin Blockade exposed the military unreadiness of the West and compelled them to make definite preparations.
  3. In March 1948 Britain, France, Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg had signed the Brussels Defence Treaty promising military help in the case of war.
  4. Now they were joined by the USA, Canada, Portugal, Denmark, Eire, Italy and Norway. They signed the North Atlantic Treaty.
  5. They regarded an attack on one of them as an attack on all of them, and.
  6. Placing their defence forces under a joint NATO command organisation which would coordinate the defence of the west.
  7. The Americans had abandoned their policy of ‘no entangling alliances’ and pledged themselves in advance to military action.
  8. To stop the spread of communism.

(b) The Berlin Wall incident : The Cold War resulted in the separation of Germany into the Western occupied zone and Soviet occupied zone. The German capital, Berlin, was also split into four sectors. It was agreed that Germany and Berlin would eventually be reconstituted and made into a single self- governing nation. But because of the growing mistrust between Western Allies and the Soviet Union, this was prevented from happening. Finally, in 1948, relations broke down completely when the Western Allies announced currency reforms in their section of Germany.

This was in violation of a previous agreement that Germany was to be treated as a single economic unit. The Soviets perceived this as a Western attempt to end the communist regime in Germany. They responded by announcing their own currency reforms and a blockade of all land traffic from West Germany to Berlin to starve out Western interests. The Berlin Wall was erected in 1967 by East Germany’s Communist authorities to prevent mass immigration from East Germany to West Berlin. This wall completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany by land.

The West responded to this blockade by beginning a massive airlift to West Berlin to bring food, water and necessary supplies to the stranded and isolated inhabitants. Twenty-four hours a day, thousands tonnes of supplies were flown into West Berlin.

The Cuban Missile Crisis : One of the most serious crises in the history of the post Second World War period occurred on the installation of nuclear missile by Soviet Union in Cuba in 1962. Cuba, a communist country, is located in the Latin America, which the U.S. considers its backyard. Fidel Castro, the new ruler of Cuba, nationalized all American-owned estates and factories. As a result, her relations with America worsened whereas relations with Russia improved. The United States severed diplomatic relations with Cuba. Within a few months the U.S. organised the infiltration of 2000 Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the aim of overthrowing the communist government of Cuba.

The invasion was a fiasco and was condemned by the whole world. Russia, apparently at the request of Cuba decided to set up nuclear missile launchers in Cuba which were very close to the American coast. These missiles could be directed to any target thousands of kilometers away, without any operation. Before that, the United States had already set up missile bases near the territory of the Soviet Union and itself remained safe.

In 1962, the United States found through its spy network that the Soviet Union was building missile sites in Cuba. The installation would have brought American territory within easy range of attack. On 22nd October, 1962, the then United States President, John F. Kennedy, announced a blockade around Cuba. The U.S. also prepared to launch an attack on the missile sites in Cuba. This incident could have led to a major world crisis and to nuclear disaster. However, the crisis ended on 26 October, as Khrushchev, the Soviet Prime Minister, sent a message to the President Kennedy that the Soviet Union would remove her missiles from Cuba if the United States pledged not to attack Cuba and withdraw her missiles from Turkey near tlje Soviet Union. The United States agreed to these terms and the crisis was averted.

Question 11.
(a) What were the causes and results of the Arab- Israel Six Day War. of 1967 ? [8]
(b) What were the results of the Yom Kippur War (1973) ? [4]
(c) Why did the Egyptians and Israelis agree to start negotiations in 1978 to resolve their differences ? What part did President Carter of the US play in this peace process ? [4]
Answer 11:
(a) Causes and results of the Six Day War (1967)

  1. In Iraq a new government came to power which was influenced by the ideas of the Ba’ath party (resurrection)-they believed in Arab independence and unity and were left wing in outlook, wanting social reform and better treatment for ordinary people
  2. In Syria political upheavals brought the Ba’ath party to power.
  3. It supported El Fatah, the Palestinian Liberation Movement(guerrilla force)
  4. The Syrians began to bombard Jewish settlements
  5. In Egypt Colonel Nasser was immensely popular because of his leadership of the Arab world.
  6. Nasser tried to improve the conditions in Egypt- industrialised the country, built factories, Aswan Dam project etc.
  7. Nasser thought the time to be ripe for another attack on Israel
  8. The Russians encouraged Egypt and Syria and kept up a flow of anti-Israeli propaganda.
  9. Syria, Jordan and Lebanon also massed troops along their frontiers with Israel – contingents -Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Algeria

Results :

  1. They launched a series of devastating air strikes which destroyed most of the Egyptian air force.
  2. Israeli troops captured the Gaza Strip and the whole of Sinai from Egypt, the rest of Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan and the Golan Heights from Syria.
  3. The Arabs had to accept a UN ceasefire order.
  4. Reasons for spectacular Israeli success: the slow and ponderous Arab troop build-up gave plenty of warnings to them, Israeli superiority in air and inadequate Arab preparations and communications
  5. It was a great success for the Israelis.
  6. Ignored the UN order to return the captured territory.
  7. It acted as a series of buffer zones between Israeli and the Arab states.
  8. New problem- a million of Arabs found themselves under Israeli rule who were living in the refugee camps.
  9. It was a humiliation for the Arab states particularly for Nasser who realized that the Arabs needed outside help in order to free Palestine.

(b) Results of the Yom Kippur War

  1. The end of the war brought a glimmer of hope for some sort of permanent peace.
  2. Egyptian and Israeli leaders came together (though not in the same room) in Geneva.
  3. The Israelis agreed to move their troops back from the Suez Canal enabling the Egyptians to clear and open the canals in 1975.
  4. Arab oil producing states tried to bring pressure to bear on the USA and on Western European states.
  5. This caused serious oil shortages especially in Europe.
  6. The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) began to raise oil supplies Substantially and resulted in inflation and caused an energy crisis in the world’s industrial nations.

(c)

1. The two sides were willing to negotiate as President Sadat was convinced that the Israelis could not be destroyed by force and it was foolish to waste Egypt’s resources in fruitless wars.

2. Israelis were suffering from severe economic problems because of huge defense expenditure and world recession.

3. The USA was pressing the Israelis to settle their differences with some of the Arabs. President Jimmy Carter of USA acted as the Mediator and played a vital role in setting up negotiations between the two sides.

-: End of ISC History 2014 Class-12 Solved Paper :-


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