ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved for practice. Step by step Solutions with Questions of Part-1 and 2 (Section-A and B). By the practice of Political Science 2014 Class-12 Solved Previous Year Question Paper you can get the idea of solving.
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ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
-: Select Your Topics :-
Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A, two questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Part-I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions
ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12
Answer briefly each of the questions (i) to (xv): [15 x 2]
(i) Why is Aristotle’s classification of States considered to be inadequate even from the traditional point of view ?
(ii) Define Oligarchy.
(iii) How is a federation formed ?
(iv) What is the difference between a constitutional law and an ordinary law ?
(v) How is flexibility achieved in the British Constitution ?
(vi) Under what circumstances is a coalition government formed ? Give an example of a coalition government.
(vii) Write any one criterion required for a political party in India to be recognized as a National Party.
(viii) State any two factors that have contributed to the recent growth in the powers of the Executive.
(ix) The House of Commons is more powerful than the House of Lords in its financial powers. Give two reasons in support of the given statement.
(x) What is the suspensory veto of the President of USA. ?
(xi) State the semi-judicial function of the civil services in present times.
(xii) Distinguish between judicial activism and judicial restraint.
(xiii) What is Public Interest Litigation ?
(xiv) Give two examples of Separatist Movements in India.
(xv) What is regional imbalance ?
(iii) A federation is a state with one central government which is very powerful and several state governments existing side by side with the former acting for the whole territory and all the people of the state, and the latter acting within their respective areas. A federation comes into existence when several sovereign states combine to form a big state.
Example — India, U.S.A., Canada and Australia.
(viii) The two factors that have contributed to the recent growth in the powers of the executive are as follows :
- Rise of delegated legislation.
- Increased burden of work in the legislature.
(x) The President of U.S.A. can return a bill, to the congress before the expiry of 10 days, excluding Sundays, taken from the date on which it is submitted to him for his signature. In this event, the two houses of the congress have to repass it by 2/3rd majority. In case, the bill fails to get this majority, it stands rejected. However in case it qualifies this requirement, it becomes a law and the President has to sign it. The power of returning the bill to the congress and forcing its passage by 2/3rd majority is known as the suspensory veto power of the President.
(xi) The disputes involving the grant of permits and licences and tax concessions, quotas etc. are examples of some semi judicial functions of the civil servants in present times.
Part-II (60 Marks)
Answer any three questions
Previous Year Question Papers for ISC Political Science 2014 of Class-12 Solved
(a) Enumerate the merits and demerits of a unitary government. 
(b) Explain the various factors that make the central government more powerful even in a federation. 
- It is a source of strong, stable and all powerful government.
- It ensures a single uniform administration for the whole of the state.
- The system deserves special praise for its simplicity and less expensiveness.
- The administration of a unitary state is flexible and can easily adopt itself to the changing social needs and environment because the central government can amend the constitution as and when required.
- This system is very suitable for small countries, because it establishes organisation and unity after ending all differences.
- It is very suitable for meeting emergencies because, being an all powerful government, the central government can take all necessary decisions quickly and implement them with full force.
The unitary state provides for the creation of an all powerful central government with full centralization of powers. It involves a possibility for central despotism over local areas.
The central government often behaves inefficiently because of being overloaded with all the work. It often finds itself not fully capable of meeting the pressure of work resulting from the social economic cultural functions that it has to perform as an agent of the modem welfare state.’
A unitary government, because of being located at the centre and faced with pressing national problems, very often fails to satisfy local needs.
The unitary system is suitable only for small and homogeneous states. For big states or states with racial, linguistic, cultural, religious and regional diversities, a federal system alone can be suitable.
A unitary government is more bureaucratic. The existence of a single political executive and legislature for the whole state makes way for the dominance of the administration by the bureaucracy.
It kills local initiative. It further discourages popular interest in public affairs.
(b) It is the most suitable system for every big state. It alone provides strength to the idea of the world state. The federal system gives more power and authority to the central government.
In a federal system all important departments lie in the jurisdiction of the central government. Like in India all the issues or subjects are divided into three categories the union list, the state list and the concurrent list. All vital issues or important departments like defense, currency regulation, railways etc., lie in the control of the central government. The national list which contains all the important subjects is only controlled by the central government which make it more powerful than all the federating units or states.
The national government concentrates upon the task of satisfying the common national needs and goals of development and the state governments concentrate upon the satisfaction of local needs. The central governments makes it possible for the states with social, cultural, linguistic, religious and regional diversities to maintain themselves as states. Thus the central government constitutes the best means for harmonizing these diversities with the need for national unity. Thus the central government plays a very crucial and pivotal role thus making the central government more powerful in a federation.