ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved

ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved for practice. Step by step Solutions with Questions of Part-1 and 2 (Section-A and B). By the practice of Political Science 2014 Class-12 Solved Previous Year Question Paper you can get the idea of solving.

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ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved


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Part-1

Sections-A of Part-2

Section-B of Part-2


Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours

  • Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
  • Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A, two questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
  • The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].

Part-I (20 Marks)

Answer all questions

ISC Political Science 2014 Class-12 

Question 1.
Answer briefly each of the questions (i) to (xv): [15 x 2]
(i) Why is Aristotle’s classification of States considered to be inadequate even from the traditional point of view ?
(ii) Define Oligarchy.
(iii) How is a federation formed ?
(iv) What is the difference between a constitutional law and an ordinary law ?
(v) How is flexibility achieved in the British Constitution ?
(vi) Under what circumstances is a coalition government formed ? Give an example of a coalition government.
(vii) Write any one criterion required for a political party in India to be recognized as a National Party.
(viii) State any two factors that have contributed to the recent growth in the powers of the Executive.
(ix) The House of Commons is more powerful than the House of Lords in its financial powers. Give two reasons in support of the given statement.
(x) What is the suspensory veto of the President of USA. ?
(xi) State the semi-judicial function of the civil services in present times.
(xii) Distinguish between judicial activism and judicial restraint.
(xiii) What is Public Interest Litigation ?
(xiv) Give two examples of Separatist Movements in India.
(xv) What is regional imbalance ?
Answer 1.
(iii) A federation is a state with one central government which is very powerful and several state governments existing side by side with the former acting for the whole territory and all the people of the state, and the latter acting within their respective areas. A federation comes into existence when several sovereign states combine to form a big state.
Example — India, U.S.A., Canada and Australia.

(viii) The two factors that have contributed to the recent growth in the powers of the executive are as follows :

  • Rise of delegated legislation.
  • Increased burden of work in the legislature.

(x) The President of U.S.A. can return a bill, to the congress before the expiry of 10 days, excluding Sundays, taken from the date on which it is submitted to him for his signature. In this event, the two houses of the congress have to repass it by 2/3rd majority. In case, the bill fails to get this majority, it stands rejected. However in case it qualifies this requirement, it becomes a law and the President has to sign it. The power of returning the bill to the congress and forcing its passage by 2/3rd majority is known as the suspensory veto power of the President.

(xi) The disputes involving the grant of permits and licences and tax concessions, quotas etc. are examples of some semi judicial functions of the civil servants in present times.


Part-II (60 Marks)

Section—A
Answer any three questions

Previous Year Question Papers for ISC Political Science 2014 of Class-12 Solved

Question 2.
(a) Enumerate the merits and demerits of a unitary government. [8] (b) Explain the various factors that make the central government more powerful even in a federation. [6] Answer 2:
(a) Merits:

  • It is a source of strong, stable and all powerful government.
  • It ensures a single uniform administration for the whole of the state.
  • The system deserves special praise for its simplicity and less expensiveness.
  • The administration of a unitary state is flexible and can easily adopt itself to the changing social needs and environment because the central government can amend the constitution as and when required.
  • This system is very suitable for small countries, because it establishes organisation and unity after ending all differences.
  • It is very suitable for meeting emergencies because, being an all powerful government, the central government can take all necessary decisions quickly and implement them with full force.

Demerits:
The unitary state provides for the creation of an all powerful central government with full centralization of powers. It involves a possibility for central despotism over local areas.

The central government often behaves inefficiently because of being overloaded with all the work. It often finds itself not fully capable of meeting the pressure of work resulting from the social economic cultural functions that it has to perform as an agent of the modem welfare state.’

A unitary government, because of being located at the centre and faced with pressing national problems, very often fails to satisfy local needs.

The unitary system is suitable only for small and homogeneous states. For big states or states with racial, linguistic, cultural, religious and regional diversities, a federal system alone can be suitable.

A unitary government is more bureaucratic. The existence of a single political executive and legislature for the whole state makes way for the dominance of the administration by the bureaucracy.

It kills local initiative. It further discourages popular interest in public affairs.

(b) It is the most suitable system for every big state. It alone provides strength to the idea of the world state. The federal system gives more power and authority to the central government.

In a federal system all important departments lie in the jurisdiction of the central government. Like in India all the issues or subjects are divided into three categories the union list, the state list and the concurrent list. All vital issues or important departments like defense, currency regulation, railways etc., lie in the control of the central government. The national list which contains all the important subjects is only controlled by the central government which make it more powerful than all the federating units or states.

The national government concentrates upon the task of satisfying the common national needs and goals of development and the state governments concentrate upon the satisfaction of local needs. The central governments makes it possible for the states with social, cultural, linguistic, religious and regional diversities to maintain themselves as states. Thus the central government constitutes the best means for harmonizing these diversities with the need for national unity. Thus the central government plays a very crucial and pivotal role thus making the central government more powerful in a federation.

Question 3.
(a) What is a constitution ? State any six qualities of a good constitution. [8] (b) Give three merits and three demerits of a flexible constitution. [6] Answer 3:
(a) The constitution is the supreme and fundamental law of the state. The government is organised and it performs all its functions according to the constitution of the state. It lays down the nature of relations between the people with their government. A modern constitution necessarily involves a charter of the rights and duties of its citizens.

The six qualities of a good constitution are as follows:

  • A constitution must be systematically written and it should incorporate the constitutional law of the state.
  • It should have the ability to develop and change in accordance with the changes in the environment in which it operates.
  • It should be neither unduly rigid nor unduly flexible.
  • It must include a chapter on fundamental rights and freedom of the people and provide a constitutional guarantee to it.
  • It should clearly define the organization, powers and functions of the government of the state, its three organs, their inter-relationship and the limitations on its powers.
  • The constitution must clearly reflect the sovereignty of the people and should itself enjoy the status of the supreme law of the state.

(b) A flexible constitution is one which can be easily amended. Merits and demerits of flexible constitution are as follows :
Merits of Flexible Constitution :
A flexible constitution can easily be changed in accordance with the changes in the social and political environment of the society.

A flexible constitution enables the government to undertake all steps deemed essential for meeting situation at the time of an emergency.

Since the flexible constitution keeps on changing with time, it always continues to be popular and remains fresh. It effectively mirrors the historical developments which take place in the society it serves.

Demerits of Flexible Constitution :
Flexible constitution is a source of instability. It enables the government in power to amend the constitution in order to fit its narrow interests.

In federation type of government, a flexible constitution can lead to undesirable changes in the constitution by the federal government, so it is not suitable for a federation.

A flexible constitution can be successful only when there are certain conditions present in the environment, otherwise it becomes a source of instability and trouble. For example, it demands honest and mature leadership, otherwise flexibility of the constitution will lead to pursuing selfish and narrowly conceived goals.


Section — B
Answer any two questions.

Solved Paper of  Political Science 2014 for ISC Class-12 Previous Year

Question 4.
(a) How did Montesquieu explain the theory of separation of powers ? To what extent is the theory followed in the constitutions of USA. and India ? [8] (b) What role does a political party play in a democratic country ? [6] Answer 4:
(b) The role of the parties can be examined through an analysis of the functions performed by them:
Formulation of Public Opinion : The first and the most important function of political parties is to give coherence and meaning to the ideas, desires and ambitions of public upon various issues and problems. They are the instruments for clarifying public opinion and thereby for making it possible for the Government of the state to base or change its policies on the basis of public opinion.

Agencies of Political Education and Political Socialization : Political parties play an important role as agencies of political education. Along with other agencies like family, school and mass media, the political parties transmit the values of the political system to the people. Mostly, it is through political parties that people learn and act out their roles as citizens and voters. Political parties play a vital role in the integration of an individual with his political community.

Recruitment : Political parties are the essential and ideal channels for recruiting leaders. In all political systems, democratic as well as totalitarian, leaders emerge through political parties. These provide necessary leadership education and training to their members, some of whom emerge as leaders.

Interest Articulation : However, interest articulation is mostly a function of the interest groups, yet political parties, as the organised political structures working in the environment of the political systems, always play an important role in interest articulation. These help the people to sort out, clarify and specify their claim demands. In a political system with a single party system, the political party in-built groups act as the agency of interest articulation. To some extent, it is also true of single party dominant multi-party systems.

Interest Aggregation : Political parties are the main agencies of aggregation. These are specialized aggregation structures of modem societies. The articulated interests are aggregated into a set of policy proposals or alternatives by the political parties. They take these to the Government for approval.

Question 5.
(a) Discuss the advantages of a bicameral legislature. [8] (b) Explain the powers and functions of the House of Representatives of U.S A. [6] Answer 5:
(a) The main advantages of bicameral legislature are as follows :
Second Chamber is a Safeguard against the Despotism of a Single Chamber : The second chamber is essential for preventing the first House from becoming arbitrary and despotic. As such a single chamber with all the legislative power can become corrupt and despotic. The second chamber is needed for keeping the first chamber in balance and away from tyrannical tendencies. It is an essential means for safeguarding ourselves against the arbitrariness of the legislature with a single chamber.

Second Chamber is Essential for Preventing Hasty and Ill-considered Legislation : With a view to satisfy mass passions and demands, the single chamber can commit the mistake of passing ill-considered measures in a haste, which can subsequently be a source of big harm to the national interests. The second chamber, with a composition different from the first chamber, can prevent or at least considerably limit such chances. The directly elected lower chamber is liable to be swayed with popular passions resulting into half-baked expediency based on ill-considered laws.

Second Chamber acts as a Revising Chamber : The legislative work in the modern welfare state has become highly complex and technical. It demands a deep and carefully examination of all aspects of the measures which are to be enacted into laws. A single chamber can be guilty of both omission of desired laws and ‘commissions of errors’. There is, therefore, full justification for having a second chamber performing the role of a reviser. Second Chamber Lessens the Burden of the First House .A modem legislature has to pass a large number of laws covering all aspects of social relations. Under the circumstances a legislature with a single chamber is most likely to be found wanting and unable to meet the heavy rush. Two Houses can together share the legislative work and handle the entire work systematically. The division of work between the two Houses can go a long way to increase the ability of the legislature to cope with the rush of work and to ensure efficiency in handling it.

Two Houses Better Represent Public Opinion : A single House can grow out of tune and fail to keep in pace with public opinion. The second House chosen at a different time can help the legislature in overcoming the above defect and in keeping continuous contact with the public opinion. Essential for giving Representation to Special Interests : The second chamber provides a convenient means for giving representation to different classes and interests which need representation but which, for want of proper organisation or disinclination for contesting elections or other reasons, do not get such representation in the lower House. Laborers, women, scientists, artists, teachers, intellectuals, writers, special interest groups can be given suitable and necessary special representation in the upper House.

Delay is Useful : The passing of laws by two Houses instead of a single House, leads to some delay. However, this delay is a very useful interval as it helps the crystallization of public opinion on all bills before they become laws. The existence of second chamber, “interposes delay between the introduction and final adoption of a measure and thus permits time for reflection and deliberation.” Bicameralism is a Source of Independence for the Executive : The two Houses of the legislature act as checks on each other. The authority and role of each House has a balancing effect on the other. This feature helps the executive to act with more and needed independence.

(b) House of Representatives is the lower, popular and directly elected House of the U.S. Congress. It represents the people of the United States and is directly responsible to them. We can describe it as the “National representative House which directly reflects the national public opinion.

Composition : The House of Representatives consists of 435 directly elected representatives of the people. It is generally agreed that the strength of 435 is adequate to represent the people of the U.S .A. The Constitution lays down that no representative shall represent less than 30,000 citizens, but a state must be represented by at least one representative even if its population is less than 30,000.

Legislative Powers : In the sphere of law-making, the House of Representatives has legally an equal share with the Senate. Any bill in respect of any Federal subject can be introduced in it. After getting passed from it, the bill goes to the Senate. In case the Senate also passes it, the bill goes to the President for his signatures. In case, the President signs it or if he does not sign it and 10 days elapse, it becomes an act. In case, however, the President returns the bill within 10 days and with or without proposals for changes, the two Houses have to repass it by 2/3rd majority. Failure to get 2/3rd majority in any House, means the rejection of the bill. In case there develops a conflict between the House of Representatives and the Senate, and it remains unresolved, the two Houses appoint a six- member (3 from each House) conference committee which gives the final verdict regarding the fate of the bill.

Financial Powers : Money bills can originate only in the House of Representatives. The budget too is first introduced in this House. The Money bills and the budget are first passed by it. Thereafter, these go to the Senate which has the power to make any change in them. As such the Senate determines the final shape of money bill. The priority given to the House of Representatives in respect of the introduction of the money bill, in fact acts as a limitation because it gives to the Senate the opportunity to take the final decision.

Constituent Powers : The passing of an amendment by the Congress requires approval by 2/3rd majority in both the Houses. House of Representatives as such has equal role in initiating amendments to the Constitution. The Houses together and not the Senate or the House separately can undertake the initiation of amending executive functions. The House of Representatives has only minor executive functions. It can appoint investigation committees for investigating the working of various Government departments. The Congress i.e., the House of Representatives and the Senate together, have power to declare war. Senate cannot do it individually, besides, the House of Representatives has not been assigned any role in the executive sphere.

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