ISC Political Science 2018 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
ISC Political Science 2018 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved for practice. Step by step Solutions with Questions with Part-1 and Part-2 (Section-A and B). By the practice of Political Science 2018 Class-12 Solved Previous Year Question Paper you can get the idea of solving.
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ISC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2018 Solved for Class 12
-: Select Your Topics :-
Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A.
- Two questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Part-I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions
ISC Political Science 2018 Previous Year Question Papers Solved Class-12
Question 1. (ISC Political Science 2018 Class-12)
Answer briefly each of the questions (i) to (x): [10 x 2]:
(i) India is described as a federal state with subsidiary unitary features. Identify two of these unitary features.
(ii) What are conventions ?
(iii) Distinguish between direct and indirect elections.
(iv) Explain the composition of the U. S. Senate.
(v) State two legislative powers of the President of India.
(vi) What is meant by Judicial Review ?
(vii) What is the purpose of Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution ?
(viii) Mention any two words that were added to the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution of India.
(ix) What is meant by regionalism in the context of Indian Democracy ?
(x) With respect to the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India, what is the significance of the Eleventh Schedule ?
(i) The unitary features of Indian federal state are :
- Strong center.
- Absence of separate constitution for states.
(ii) Conventions form the wrap and woof of the British Constitution. Rules that are observed by various constituted parts though they are not written in any document having legal authority. These regulate working of all the offices and institutions of the constitution. They are backed by public opinion and their utility.
(iii) In direct elections people directly choose their representatives by casting their votes. For example, election for Lok Sabha. In indirect elections, the elected members cast their votes to select the candidates. For example, members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members and nominated members.
(iv) US senate consists of 2 senators from each state who serve the term for six years each, regardless of population of the state. As there are fifty US states, there are 100 senators in all.
(v) Two legislative powers of President of India are:
- The President has the power to summon and prorogue the two Houses of Parliament. He can also dissolve the Lok Sabha.
- The President can address each House separately or jointly.
(vi) Judicial Review allows Supreme Court to review all laws and regulations made by the legislature, thus entitling it with the role of interpreter and guardian of the constitution. If the judiciary finds any such law interfering or violating the fundamental rights, it can declare it unconstitutional (null and void).
(vii) The purpose of Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution is to establish social and economic democracy.
(viii) Two words which were added to the Preamble by the 42nd amendment to the Constitution of India are :
(ix) Regionalism in context of Indian democracy means an ideology and political movement that seeks advancement of particular geographical regions which have distinct culture, language, identity and tradition.
(x) With respect to 73rd amendment to the constitution of India, the significance of the Eleventh Schedule is that, it lists the 29 subjects which falls under the jurisdiction of Panchayats.
Part – II
Answer any five questions
ISC Previous Year Question Papers Solved Political Science 2018 Class-12
(a) Explain three differences between parliamentary and presidential forms of govern-ment. 
(b) Explain four features of an Authoritarian State. 
(a) Following are the differences between Parliamentary and Presidential forms of governments:
In the Parliamentary system of government there is a harmonious relationship between the legislative and executive body, whereas the functioning of judiciary is independent. However, in a Presidential form of government, the three organs of the government, i.e. executive, legislative and judiciary work independently of each other.
In a Parliamentary form of government, the executive power is divided into two parts, viz., the Head of the State (President) and the Head of the Government (Prime Minister). However, in a Presidential form of Govern¬ment, the President is the chief executive.
In a Parliamentary form of government, the executive body, i.e., the Council of Minis¬ters are accountable to the Parliament. However, there is no such accountability in the Presidential form of Government, i.e., the executive body is not accountable to the Parliament for its acts.
(b) Four features of an Authoritarian State are as follows:
Power is vested in one hand : One ruler or a small group of leaders have the real power. The authoritarian government can be formed by kings, emperors, a small group of aristocrats, military leaders, dictators and even presidents or prime ministers.
No say of citizens in decision making :
There can be elections of contract between the rulers and citizens but citizen don’t have any say in the way they are ruled out. The ruler chooses how to govern the people. Citizens don’t have any voice in decision making and have to obey the authoritarian ruler.
The title of ruler doesn’t indicate type of government : The leaders are usually from small group, like top military officials or aristocratic families. For example,countries like Myanmar, Cuba, China and Iran have authoritarian regime.
No freedom for citizens : The citizens don’t have any right like freedom of speech, press or religion and they have to submit to the desires of the ruler.
(a) Explain the following kinds of constitutions : 
(b) Is the distinction between a written constitution and an unwritten constitution a real one? Discuss. 
(a) A written constitution is the one in which a document or a collection of documents contains the fundamental rules regarding the main organs and institutions of government. It is deliberately formulated and is consciously planned. It is formulated by conventions or constituent assembly. The constitution of India is designed and adopted by the constituent assembly.