ISC Psychology 2019 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper Solved
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ISC Psychology 2019 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper
-: Select Your Topics :-
Maximum Marks: 70
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 from Part I and five questions from Part II,
- Choosing two questions from Section A and three questions from Section B.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Part – I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions.
ISC Psychology 2019 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper
Question 1. 
Answer briefly all the questions (i) to (xx) :
(i) Define personality according to Cattell.
(ii) Give one characteristic of people with type A personality.
(iii) Who put forward the Two Factor Theory of Intelligence ?
(iv) Explain the term ego according to Freud.
(v) What are stressors ?
(vi) Explain the term modelling.
(vii) What is meant by ambivalent attachment ?
(viii) Explain the term consumer behaviour.
(ix) What is meant by matching an individual with a job ?
(x) . Who coined the concept of IQ ?
(xi) What is meant by the term social perception ?
(xii) Explain the term rehabilitation as a technique of Psychotherapy.
(xiii) Give the full form ofDSMIV.
(xiv) Mention any two classification of personality type accepted by Charak Samhita of Ayurveda.
(xv) What is meant by substance abuse ?
(xvi) Explain the term hypertension.
(xvii) What is meant by Primary Cognitive Appraisal ?
(xviii) Mention any one personality type put forward by Sheldon.
(xix) What is meant by the term growth with reference to human beings ?
(xx) What is displacement according to Freud ?
(i) According to Raymond Cattell (1970), “Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation”
(ii) One characteristic of people with Type A personality is- Competitive drive, time urgency, impatient, ambitious, rigidly organized, (any one).
(iii) Charles Spearman in (1904) developed Two factor Theory of Intelligence.
(iv) According to Sigmund Freud, “ego is one of the components of the mind which works on the ‘reality’ principle. This component takes into account external reality in the expression of instinctive behaviour and aggressive urges arising from id.
(v) Stressors are factors that trigger or cause stress. For example: excessive noise, physical injury etc. Stressors can be physiological, environmental, social and psychological.
(vi) Modeling involves learning through observation and imitation of others. It is a technique based on social learning theory developed by Bandura. In this technique, the client tries to learn new skills, modify or unlearn maladaptive behaviours by watching any role model displaying the desired behaviour.
(vii) Attachment is an affectional and emotional bond that at first develops with one’s primary care givers. Ambivalent attach¬ment was given by Mary Ainsworth. In ambivalent attachment babies do not explore the environment. They stay close to their parents in the beginning. They show anger and resistive behaviour when the parent returns. They are not easily comforted, even when picked up by the parents. They show opposing tendencies of both clinging and resisting the parents. This style develops when parents them-selves are inconsistent in meeting the babies’ needs.
(viii) Consumer behaviour may be described as behaviour that is displayed by consumer while buying, collecting, evaluating the usefulness of any product. Consumer psy chologists try to find out the underlying cognitive processes that determine the consumers’ buying choices.
(ix) After completing the analysis of an indivi dual’s characteristics (testing individuals) and the specific nature of a job (job analysis), a career counselor selects and recruits the suitable person for the job, matching the person’s abilities with the job requirements.
(x) William Stem (1912) coined the concept of IQ.
(xi) Social perception is a process by which individuals seek to know and understand other persons. They draw inferences about other people depending upon the initial knowledge gained about them. Social perception is the central part of social thought and social behaviour.
(xii) Rehabilitation is the procedure of restoring an individual to their normal life after a period of disfavour. Rehabilitation involves engaging people in various creative, cultural and productive activities as well as vocational training. Rehabilitation is a welfare program that helps in recons¬truction of an individual’s social, economic, family and professional life.
(xiii) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders- Fourth Edition (1994), produced by American Psychiatric Association.
(xiv) Personality types according to Charak Samhita of Ayurveda are- Vata (air), Kapha ( water and earth), Pitta( Fire and water). [Any two]
(xv) Substance abuse is a maladaptive or pathological pattern of substance use (mainly alcohol and dmgs) that results in potentially hazardous behaviour such as driving while intoxicated and continued use despite social, psychological, occupational or health problem.
(xvi) Hypertension is also called high blood pressure. It indicates that blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. It slowly damages various organs such as kidneys, brain and eyes.
(xvii) According to Lazarus, when a person confronts a new or changing environment they determine the meaning of the event, trying to judge the situation and it’s probable influences on them. This process is known as Primary cognitive appraisal. Events may be perceived as positive, negative or neutral in their consequences. Negative events are further appraised for their possible harm, threat or challenge,
(xviii) Personality type put forward by Sheldon is- Endomorph, Mesomorph, Ectomorph. [Any one]
|Body Type||Body Characteristics||Personality
|Endomorphy||No muscle development etc. prominent stomach.||Takes everything easy, sociable and affectionate.|
|Mesomorphy||Balance between development of stomach and bones||Likes to work, interested in adventurous activities.|
|Ectomorphy||Weak, tall, thin||Pessimist, unsociable and alone|
(xix) According to L.D. Crow and A.Crow (1962), “growth refers to structural and physiological changes”. It refers to quantitative changes such as change in height,weight.
(xx) Displacement is a defense mechanism of the ‘ego’. In this, the motive originally meant for one goal object is turned towards some other less anxiety and less threatening goal object. For example, a person who is angry on his boss vents the anger on the children at home or kicks the stray dog on road. This yields some relief for the pent-up tension.
Part — II (50 Marks)
Section — A
Answer any two questions.
ISC Psychology 2019 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper
(a) Discuss the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test for measuring intelligence.  (b) What is meant by Aptitude ? Mention four uses of aptitude test.  Answer 2:
(a) Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) is a non-verbal, culture fair group test. It was originally developed by John C.Raven in 1938.
Test description: RPM is constructed for groups ranging from 5 year olds to the elderly. In each matrix, the subject is asked to identify the missing element from the given options that completes the pattern. There are six to eight options given to choose from. There is no time limit to complete the task. It checks the individual’s eductive and reproductive ability.
Version : The matrices are available in three different forms for participants of different abilities. These matrices are :
Standard Progressive Matrices : This is the original form of the matrices made for average six years old to eight years old. It has five sets(From A to E) of 12 items each (numbered as A1 to A12,B1 to B12…). The items in each set are organized at an increasing difficulty level. The items are presented in black ink on a white background.
Coloured Progressive Matrices : These matrices are used for children aged from 5 to 11 years of age, the elderly and for people who have moderate to severe learning difficulties. They have sets A and B of the Standard Progressive Matrices in coloured format. Additionally it has another set of 12 items between the sets of A and B. The additional set is referred to as AB. Most of the items have a coloured background to make them visually stimulating for the target group. However, the last few items of Set B are presented in blackink against white background. If the participant performs better than the tester’s expectation then the participant is moved to do the sets C, D and E of the Standard Progressive Matrices.
Advanced Progressive Matrices : These matrices are used for adolescents and adults who show the signs of being above average intelligence. It has 48 items. It is presented as Set I, which has 12 subsets and Set II, which has 36 subsets. Items are presented in black ink on white background. The items in the set are arranged in increasing order of difficulty.
Underlying Factor : RPM measures the two main components of general intelligence, originally identified by Charles Spearman. These are :
- The clear thinking ability, with an ability to make sense of a complete situation called the eductive ability.
- The ability of storing and reproducing learnt information, known as reproductive ability.
(b) According to Freeman (1971), “An aptitude is a combination of characteristics indicative of an individual’s capacity to acquire (with training) some specific knowledge, skill or set of organized responses, such as the ability to speak a language, to become a musician , to do mechanical work.” An aptitude is thus a component of competency or a readiness for a certain kind of work at a certain level without prior learning experience. Hence it is innate by nature.
Aptitude is a primary determinant of success. Uses of Aptitude tests are as follows :
Learning ability of a learner can be measured, which would reflect overall future performances. This can help individuals select subjects he or she could pursue. It is the back bone of guidance services.
Employers can use aptitude tests to select individuals for various jobs. They can be used for placing the employees in various positions. Training programmes may be conducted based on the results of aptitude tests as it assesses differences in aptitude among individuals.
Aptitude tests can be used as a benchmark for admission of students in different profes¬sional courses like medicine, engineering.
High level of specific aptitude of a learner is called talent. If this talent is harnessed properly then it can reach great heights.
(a) Describe in detail the Big Five Factor model of Costa and McCrae.  (b) Discuss the administration and scoring in Rorschach Inkblot Test.  Answer 3:
(a) In psychology, the Five factor Model by Paul Costa and Robert McCrae (1992) are five broad dimensions or domains of personality that are used to describe human personality. This theory emerged as a model for understanding the relationship between personality and various academic behaviours. The Big Five factors is known by the acronym ‘OCEAN’ and is as follows:
Openness to experience (inventive / curious vs. consistent/cautious)- Openness is a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity and variety of experience. People who are open to experience are intellectually curious, appreciative of art and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be more creative. They are more likely to hold unconventional beliefs. They have an ability to think in abstraction. People with low score on openness tend to have more conventional, traditional interests. They prefer the plain, straightforward and obvious over the complex, ambiguous and subtle. Closed people prefer familiarity over novelty; they are conservative and resistant to change .
Conscientiousness ( efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless) : Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully and aim for achievement against measures or outside expectations. It influences the way in which we control, regulate and direct our impulses. It involves a tendency to be organized, dependable, dutiful, disciplined at one end and to be disorganized, impulsive , irresponsible and undependable at the other end.
Extraversion (outgoing / energetic vs. solitary/reserved) : Extraverion is characterized by positive emotions, surgency and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others .The trait is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people and are often perceived as full of energy. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves and draw attention to themselves.
Introverts,on the other hand, have lower social engagement and activity level than extraverts.
They tend to seem quiet, low-key, deliberate and less involved in the social world. Their lack of social involvement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression. Introverts simply need less stimulation than extraverts and more time alone. They may be very active and energetic, simply not socially.
Agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind): Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. Agreeable individuals value getting along with others. They are generally considerate, friendly, generous , helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with others. They have an optimistic view of human nature.
Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others. They are generally unconcerned with others’ well-being and are less likely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their skepticism about others’ motives causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly and uncooperative.
Neuroticism (sensitive / nervous vs. secure / confident) : Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotion« such as anger, anxiety or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability. According to Eysenck’s theory of personality neuroticism is interlinked with low tolerance for stress or aversive stimuli. Those who score high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress. They are more likely to interpret ordinary events as threatening. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time. These problems in emotional regulation can diminish the ability of a person to think clearly, make decisions and cope effectively with stress.
At the other end of the scale, individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable and free from persistent negative feelings.
The Big Five inventory can be administered by employers to job applicants. It is believed that the big-five traits are predictive of future performance outcomes.
(b) Rorschach ink-blot test is a projective psychological test. Projective techniques are used in psychology for assessment of personality. In this technique, the individual projects his or her unconscious wishes or desires on an ambiguous stimuli. These techniques are widely used in mental hospitals and clinics to assess personality and underlying psychopathology especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.
Rorschach Inkblot Test is done to assess the structure of personality of an individual that includes personality characteristics, emotional functioning.
History : Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach (1921) presented a systematic approach in regard to an ink-blot test. After Rorschach’s death, the original scoring system of the test was improved by Bruno Klopfer and others.
Test description and administration: There are 10 official ink-blots, each printed on separate white cards, approximately 18 x 24 cm in size. Each of the ink-blots is bilaterally symmetrical. Five ink-blots are black, two are black and red and three are multi-coloured. The blots are completely unstructured, ambiguous and without any meaning.
The test is administered in the following sequence :
The cards are presented one at a time in a specified order. When the subject gets seated, the examiner gives him the first card with necessary instructions and asks him to say what he sees in it, what it looks like to him.
The subject is allowed as much time as he wants for a given card and is permitted to give as many responses as he wishes. He is also allowed to turn the card around and look at it from any angle he wants.
Besides keeping a record of the responses of the subject concerning these ink-blots on separate pieces of paper, the examiner notes the time taken for each response, the position in which the card is being held, emotional expression and other behaviours during the test.
After all the cards have been presented the second phase of inquiry which is intended to seek clarification or addition to the original responses follows.
Scoring, analysis and interpretation of the test:
The responses are scored on four categories :
Location refers to the part of the blot the testee focuses on. There can be five categories of responses. ‘W’ indicating the subject has seen the blot as a whole. ‘W’ indicating the subject has not seen the blot as a whole and concentrates on specific sections of the blot, ‘d’ indicating the subject focused on minor or less important components. ‘D’ indicating that the subject focuses on major significant details. ‘S’ indicating the subject response to white regions within the blot.
Contents refer to what the responses contain or the nature of the response. Some of the common contents are as follows :
- Human forms are symbolized as H.
- Animal forms are symbolized as A.
- Animal details are symbolized as Ad.
- Human details are symbolized as Hd.
- Natural things such as river, meadows are symbolized as N.
- Inanimate objects like lamp shade, pot are symbolized as O.
Originality refers either to popular (common occurrences) responses or original (which contains something new or is unusual) responses for each of the ten cards. Popular responses are shown as P and original responses are shown as O.