ISC Sociology 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
(b) Panchayati Raj system came into being as per 73rd amendment in 1992. It refers to a decentralized form of governance where, the villages would be responsible for their own affairs. This vision was known as ‘Gram Swaraj’ or ‘village self governance’. The 3- tier system of Panchayati Raj consists of:
- Village-level Panchayats.
- Block-level Panchayats.
- District-level Panchayats.
Powers and responsibilities delegated to the panchayats at different levels are as follows :
- Preparation of the economic development plan and social justice plan.
- Implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice.
- To levy and collect appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.
Question 4: (ISC Sociology 2016 Class-12 )
(a) What is meant by secularism ? Discuss its role in plural society like India.  (b) Discuss Totemism as a theory of religion.  Answer 4:
(a) Secularism is a belief that states that no religion should be considered as state religion. In Indian context, secularism means equal treatment of all the religions by the state. India is a country with multi-religions. A number of religions are practiced in India such as, Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, etc. The different religions have different rituals and practices.
Given such a condition, chances of religious clashes to emerge between the different groups time- groups, time and again, is inevitable. Thus, the state has granted freedom to every citizen for practicing his/her own religion. In order to safe guard the interests of its citizens , Indian constitution has strictly prohibited any discrimination based on religious grounds. Also the state does not promote any religion as its own state religion.
Role of Securalism in plural society like India:
- It enables the people of different religion to live in civity with respect for all faiths.
- It is a part of democracy which grans equal rights.
- It safeguards minority and democracy by limiting the powers of majority.
- It checks the growth of destructive communalism.
(b) Totemism is a form of tribal religious belief in which people believe that they have descended from animate or inanimate objects and hold a feeling of awe and reverence towards these objects. These objects may range from being plants and animals to even stones or rocks. Durkheim observed totemism as being the simplest and most basic form of religion among the aborigines of Australia.
The totemic object is worshipped and considered to be sacred. Totemic objects are not only important for the people as religion but also are associated with clan membership. Every clan has a totem which could be an animal or a plant. The tribe is reverent towards the totemic object and adopts its name and offers sacrifice to it and adorn it. They consider the relationship with the totemic object of a descendant and believe themselves to have descended from that object. Harming of the totem is not allowed, although, eating of the totem is allowed during special occasions. The loss of a totem is mourned ceremoniously.
Question 5: (ISC Sociology 2016 Class-12 )
(a) Write a note on the Agrarian land relations in India. 
(b) State any five types of economies amongst the Indian tribes and briefly explain them.  Answer 5:
(a) India is primarily an agricultural country, where the land plays a role in determining the agricultural relationships. Agrarian land relations in India can be divided into the following relationships :
Land owners (zamindars): They are the tax gatherers and non-cultivating owners of the land. They mostly belong to upper caste groups.
The tenants: They hire land from others for cultivation and give rent for it.
The agricultural labourers: Their position is that of bondsmen and hereditarily attached labourers. They generally belong to lower caste groups. However, due to the impact of land reform movements and rural development pro-grammes following independence, these rigid relationships have attained somewhat flexibility.
(b) Following are the main tribal economies :
Food-Gatherers and Hunters : The nomadic tribes like the Andamanese, Onge, Kadar, Kharia, Jarawa, Lodha, etc. practise hunting and food gathering. They practice subsistence economy and have a simple type of social organisation.
Permanent Settled Cultivators : The tribes like Oraon, Munda, Bhumij, Ho, Gond, Santhal, practice permanent settled cultivation. They practice wet cultivation through transplantation method and are unaware about modern means of cultivation and irrigation. They practice crop rotation. Some work as sharecroppers (Bhag-Khasi) and some as agricultural labourers. These landless agricultural labourers also practice seasonal migration to the neighbouring states.
Pastoral Economy : The Toda of the Nilgiri hills of South India and Bhotia of Almora practice pastoral economy. They rear buffaloes and cows; the milk and milk- products are exchanged to get the things for everyday use. .
Shifting Hill Cultivators : Tribes such as the Gonds, the Nagas, Khasi, Savara, Garo practice this primitive form of cultivation by adopting‘slash and bum’ method. It is known as Jhum cultivation by the Assam tribes and as Podu by the Gonds. A hilly forest area is selected for this purpose which is abandoned after three successive cultivating seasons as the soil loses its fertility. Different Kharif crops such like Bajra, Jowar, pulses, potato, tobacco, and sugar-cane are grown through this method.
Craftsmen : Some of the tribals practice their traditional crafts along with their main sources of subsistence. The Naga and the Khasi tribes are proficient in colored hand loom products. The Lohar are traditional blacksmiths. As they get only marginal profits in their traditional specialized crafts, they resort to other jobs.
Question 6: (ISC Sociology 2016 Class-12 )
(a) Give a detailed account of any five features of Indian tribes.  (b) Define the term ethnicity. Describe any four features of ethnicity.  Answer 6:
(a) Following are the features of Indian tribes:
- Common habitat : Different tribes have different territorial area under which a tribal population lives.
- Common language : A particular tribe has a definite language with no script. The language might be sub-divided into a dialect according to the particular area.
- Common religion : Religion plays a major role in the lives of the tribal people. A tribal group has a common deity or totem which represents that tribal group.
- Endogamous group : All tribes practice clan exogamy and tribe endogamy, hence are endogamous groups.
- Unity : All the members of the tribe have a sense of unity. It is a self sufficient group which lends a helping hand to their members when in need.
(b) Ethnicity : Ethinicity is a situation when a social group which is generally a minority in a society shares within itself a common culture and a we-feeling. Ehnicity refers to a category of people who identify with each other on the basis of common ancestral, social, cultural, or national experiences. Following are the features of ethnicity :
- It is primarily an inherited status.
- Its members have shared cultural heritage, origin, myth, ancestry, homeland, language and/or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, history, mythology and ritual, dressing style, cuisine, art and physical appearance.
- The members have a belief that they are culturally distinctive and different from the outsiders.
- The ethnic group has a very strong sense of solidarity.
- They are generally a territorial group as well.
- Ethnic divisions are social groups- people within the group share a common culture-they are like in groups and have
- the ‘we’ feeling.
- Ethnic groups are characterized by discrimination by other groups.
- Ethnic groups are generally not the dominant group.
- Historical conditions influence ethnic group interrelationships.
- Position and significance of ethnic groups varies from society to society.
Question 7: (ISC Sociology 2016 Class-12 )
(a) Briefly explain any five functions of Dormitories in tribal India.  (b) Write a note on the Telangana Movement.  Answer 7:
(a) Following are the functions of dormitories in tribal India :
Safety : Since the dormitories are usually at the center of a tribal community, it is thought they were created to have warriors organized, together and ready at a moment’s notice in times of battle.