ISC Sociology 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved

As a Recreational Centre : Dormitories acts as a recreational centre for different plays and also serves as a guest house.

Community : The dormitories create a sense of community and help ensure the longevity of the tribe and its culture.

Tradition : Tribes in ancient India used to live in communal houses and allowed for everyone to work together. With this tradition, the tribes may have tried to recreate this on a smaller scale.

Separation : Dormitories might have been created to segregate the genders, so the males and females did not have access to each other, keeping them pure.

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(b) The Telangana movement is a movement based separate linguistic identities. It refers to a movement by the people to demand a separate state ‘Telangana’ from the existing state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It continued for about 60 years. The proposed state corresponds to the Telugu speaking portion of Hyderabad where the children were imparted education in Telgu and Urdu.

After several years of people’s movement, the UPA government decided to bifurcate the state of Andhra Pradesh. On 7th February, 2014, the Union Cabinet passed a bill for creation of the state Telangana. As per the bill, Hyderabad will be the capital of Telangana while, it will also remain the capital of the remaining state of Andhra Pradesh. Thus, Telangana State came into being as a separate state on 2nd of June 2014.

Causes of the Movement:

  • Money and resources diverted from here to the Andhra region.
  • Development of Andhra Pradesh at the cost of Telangana region.
  • Under developed and overdeveloped areas together posed a challenge for administration.
  • The backward tribal areas did not get their reightful share. E.g. 45% of the state income comes from Telangana region but only 28% is utilized for its development.
  • Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is in the Telangana District but water from this Dam is supplied to other areas and this area is worst drought hit area.
  • Building of dam has resulted in the loss of several hectares of lime stone mines which were the source of livelihood of the tdbals.

Consequences of the Movement:

  • Formation of a new State.
  • All employees holding posts reserved for Telangana locals were transferred immediately.
  • The surplus resources will be put to use for the development of this region.
  • They were provided with educational facilities, jobs and proper budget allocation.
  • Water problem to be solved as soon as possible.

Question 8:   (ISC Sociology 2016 Class-12 )
(a) Explain any five features of castes in India. [5] (b) What does gender bias imply ? Mention any four consequences of gender bias. [5] Answer 8:
(a) Following are the features of caste in India:
Segmented division of the society which divides the society into different segments. The status of the person is determined not by wealth, but by the traditional importance of the caste which an individual has been bom into. .

The restrictions on feeding and social intercourse which help in preserving the ceremonial purity of the superior castes.

Social and religious hierarchy, according to which the Brahmins are the most privileged group and the shudras are subjected to many kinds of social disabilities.

The rule of Endogamy forbids the individuals to marry outside their caste or the subcaste.

Restrictions on choice of occupation that an individual is expected to follow his caste based occupation. Brahmins are to work as priests and impart education and read the religious texts, the Kshatriyas are warriors who are supposed to protect others, the Vaishayas are traders and merchants and the Shudras are meant to carry out the menial jobs.

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(b) Gender bias refers to the practice of discrimination on the basis of the gender of the person whether a male or a female. Gender is a socially constmcted term and it refers to the social role of the person as a male or a female. Though our constitution has strictly granted equal rights to all irrespective of the gender of the person, yet biasness prevails in our society.

The consequence of gender bias can be as follows:
Low sex ratio : As a male child is preferred over the female child, infanticide and female foeticide is still prevalent in our society resulting in a low sex ratio.

Low female literacy ratio : The literacy level of the female in 2011 is 65.46% as compared to 82.14% for males. The statistics clearly indicates that investing on female education is considered as a wastage of money as it would not prove to be beneficial because she would go to her husband’s home.

Gender wage differentials : The females earn 64% of what their male counterparts earn with the same occupation and with the same qualification and equal amount of job responsibilities.

Domestic violence and dowry deaths : The females are exploited, verbally abused, beaten for satisfying the male ego. In extreme cases, the women are even killed for failing to fulfill the demands for dowry.

Question 9:   (ISC Sociology 2016 Class-12 )
(a) Explain five features of social change. [5] (b) Define mass media. Discuss various types of mass media. [5] Answer 9:
(a) The features of the social change are as follows :

  • Social change is a universal phenomenon which occurs in all societies, whether primitive or modem as no society can remain static.
  • Social change is a community change as it brings about a change in the life patterns of several individuals.
  • The speed of social change is not uniform in age period or within the same society.
  • Social change occurs as an essential law, whether it is a natural change or a planned one.
  • Definite prediction regarding the nature and extent of social change is impossible.
  • Social change is a human change and may create chain section.

(b) Mass Media refers to a technology that is intended to reach a large number of people. Its basic purpose is to convey the information to the general public. The popular mass media are newspaper, radio, television, internet, magazine, etc. People rely on mass media to draw information related to social issues, political issues, entertainment, economics, etc.

The newspaper and magazine target to reach only literate people, while radio and television can reach all the people. In the recent past, with the invention of internet, people are now able to draw information immediately at the mere click of the mouse. Mass media plays a major role in forming the public opinion and in controlling the actions of the people.

The various types of mass media are :
Traditional Media: It is most appropriate to term as mass media, because it relates to the minds and hearts of the local population. Performing arts, folk theaters like Yatra of West Bengal, Shumang Leela of Manipur, and puppetry etc. come under the horizon of the traditional media.

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