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## ISC Sociology 2018 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper Solved

Part-I

Part-II

Maximum Marks: 70
Time allowed: Three hours

• Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
• Answer Question 1 from Part I and five questions from Part II,
• The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].

### Part – I (20 Marks)Answer all questions.

ISC Sociology 2018 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper Solved

Question 1:
Answer briefly each of the following questions : [10 x 2]
(i) What are the two types of uni lineal descents ?
(ii) Distinguish between consanguineous kinship and affinal kinship.
(iii) Who are sharecroppers ?
(iv) Define the term modernization.
(v) Explain what is meant by couvade.
(vi) Write the full forms of MGNREGA and IRDP.
(vii) What is an avuncupotestal family ?
(viii) Define assimilation.
(ix) Give the meanings of the terms beliefs and rituals.
(x) What are free goods ? Give an example.
(i) Two types of unilineal descents are patrilineal and matrilineal.

(ii) Consanguineal kinship refers to those kins, which are related through blood ( e.g., mother, siblings, offspring, etc.), while affinal kinship refers to those kins, which are related through marital bonds (husband, father, mother-in-law, brother-in-law, etc.).

(iii) Sharecroppers are farmers who don’t have their own land and work as tenants on others’ land and have to pay a part of their crops as rent to the landowner.

(iv) Modernisation is a progressive transition from pre-modern or tradition society to a modem society. It refers to improvement in technology and in the processes of production.

(v) Couvade refers to a strange sacred birth custom prevalent in tribes like Gonds and Khasi. Under this kinship, husband has to lead a life of an invalid, along with his pregnant wife. He has to refrain from doing any active physical work and has to go on a sick diet. He is also expected to follow the same taboos as are observed by his wife.

(vi) MGNREGA : Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005).
IRDP : Integrated Rural Development Programme.

(vii) Avuncupotestal family refers to the one in which the authority is vested with the maternal uncle. The nephews and nieces show the greatest loyalty towards the maternal uncle and work for him and inherit his property.

(viii) ‘Assimilation is a process whereby attitudes of many persons are united and thus, develop into a unified group.’ —Bogardus
Assimilation refers to a process in which persons or groups acquire the culture of other groups with which they come into contact, by adopting their attitudes behavior, values and ways of life.

(ix) Beliefs refers to a cognitive state of mind where some person places faith or trust in some person or thing. They refer to attitudes towards mythological, supernatural or spiritual aspects of religion, a system of knowledge or understanding shared by a group. For example, faith in supernatural power (animism) is a belief. Rituals refer to a behavioral aspects of repetitive actions and sacred words. Enchanting of mantras or performing of religious rites is termed as ritual.

(x) Free goods in economic terms refer to those resources which are available in abundance hence, people don’t have to pay anything for them. For example, air, water.

### Part – II (50 Marks)Answer any five questions.

ISC Sociology 2018 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper Solved

Question 2:
(a) Define degrees of kinship. Discuss its types with examples. [5]
(b) Define social stratification. Discuss its features. [5]
(a) Degree of kinship refers to the degree of closeness one has to different relatives. Normally, consanguenial kins are more closely related to each other than affinal kins. There are mainly three basic degrees into which the kins can be classified :

Primary kins: Some relatives are near, close and direct. They are known as primary kin. According to Dubey, they are eight in number, viz., father-son, husband-wife, mother-daughter, father-daughter, mother-son, younger-elder sisters, younger-elder brothers and sister-brother. They can be classified more minutely into primary consanguineous kin or primary affinal kin. For example: Ego’s father is Ego’s primary consanguineous kin, whereas Ego’s wife is Ego s primary affinal kin.

Secondary kins: They are primary kin of primary kin. In other words, they are related through primary kin. They are not our primary kin but are the primary kin of our primary kin, hence our secondary kin. [5].

For example, father’s brother (chacha), sister’s husband (bahnoi) are secondary kin. The father is my primary kin and his brother is the primary kin of father. Therefore, father’s brother is my secondary kin, the primary kin of primary kin. Similarly, sister is may primary kin but her husband is my secondary kin.

Tertiary kins: They are the secondary kin of our primary kin or primary kin of our secondary kin .Thus the wife of brother-in- law(sala) called sarhaj in Hindi is tertiary kin because brother-in- law is my secondary kin and his wife is the primary kin of brother-in¬law. Similarly the brother-in-law of my brother is my tertiary kin because the brother is my primary kin and his brother-in-law is the secondary kin of my brother.

(b) According to Raymond W. Murray, ‘Social stratification is a horizontal division of society into ‘higher’ and ‘lower’ social units.’ It refers to a process in which individuals and groups are ranked in more and less hierarchy of status.
Following are the features of social stratification:
Social stratification is universal : It is present in every society in one or the other form.

Social stratification is social : It is not biological attributes of the individuals that determine their superiority or inferiority but their social positions.

Social stratification is an ancient concept : The notion of stratification is not a new concept, but it has been in existence since ages. Society was always stratified on the basis of economic, politics or status.

Social stratification exists in diverse forms : The forms of social stratification varied from one society to another. For example, the Indian society is stratified on the basis of caste system into Brahmins Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras, and Greek society was divided into freemen and slaves,

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