Organic Chemistry Dalal Simplified ICSE Class-10
Organic Chemistry Dalal Simplified ICSE Class-10 Solutions Chapter 8:- Solutions of Dr Dalal Simplified ICSE Chemistry Chapter-8 Organic Chemistry by Dr Viraf and J Dalal for Class 10. Step by step Solutions of Dr Dalal Simplified ICSE Chemistry by Dr Viraf and J Dalal of Organic Chemistry Dalal Simplified .
Organic Chemistry Dalal Simplified ICSE Class-10
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Explain the term ‘Organic Chemistry ’. State the ‘Natural sources ’ and ‘Importance’ of organic compounds.
- Organic Chemistry-It is the chemistry of specific carbon compounds except – oxides, carbonates, bicarbonates and metallic carbides.
- Plants, Animals, Petroleum, dyes and drugs are all natural sources.
- Compounds of organic origin are : Food – carbohydrates, vitamins Dyes-azodyes Clothing – cotton, silk and wool Fuels – petrol Medicines – penicillin Explosives – trinitrotoluene.
Explain the ‘unique nature of carbon atom’ with specific reference and meaning to —
(a) ‘Tetravalency’ — leading to formation of single, double and triple bonds
(b) ‘Catenation’ — leading to formation of straight chain, branch chain and cyclic compounds.
Some unique properties shown by carbon atom are :
(c) Ability to form multiple bonds.
(a) Tetravalency : Atomic number of carbon is 6. Its electronic configuration is 2, 4. Therefore, it has four electrons in its valence shell. Carbon atom can neither lose nor gain electrons to complete its octet (not possible from energy point of view). Therefore, carbon atom completes its octet by sharing four electrons with other atoms, i.e., it can form four covalent bonds, called its tetracovalency.
(b) Catenation: The property by virtue of which a large number of atoms of the same element get linked together through single or multiple covalent bonds, forming straight or branched chains and rings of different sizes, is called catenation. Carbon shows catenation to the maximum extent due to strong carbon-carbon bonds and its tetracovalency.
In this process of catenation, carbon atoms form straight or branched chains and cyclic rings of various sizes and can involve single, double or triple covalent bonds.
State reasons for ‘Justification of a separate branch’ for ‘Organic Chemistry.
This is due to the following reasons:
- The number of known organic compounds is very large as compared to the number of known inorganic compounds.
- Organic compounds involve only a few elements (C, H, O, N, S, P, F, Cl, Br, I etc.), whereas inorganic compounds involve all the known elements.
- and Organic compounds have complex nature and have high molecular mass.
- compounds of carbon involve covalent bonds whereas inorganic compounds involve electrovalent bonds.
- Organic compounds show isomerism whereas inorganic compounds do not show isomerism.
- The properties of organic compounds are different from inorganic compounds.
All these facts convince us to study organic chemistry as a separate branch of chemistry.
State five differences between the characteristics of organic and inorganic compounds. State how organic compounds are classified.
Characteristics of organic compounds :
- These are made up of only a few elements C, H, O, N, S,X(C1, Br,l)
- These involve covalent bonds.
- these are generally gases or liquids
- They have low melting and boiling points.
- and They are combustible.
- They show molecular reations.
- They show isomerism.
- These are non-conductors of electrocity.
- There are generally insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
Characteristics of inorganic compounds :
- These are made up of all the known elements.
- These involve ionic bonds.
- and These are generally solids.
- They have high melting and boiling points.
- They don’t show isomerism.
- These are generally good conductors of electricity.
- These are generally soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents.
(b) Classification of Organic Compounds Aliphatic – Open Chain Compounds
Explain the term ‘Homologous series’. State the general characteristics of members of the series with special reference to molecular mass or molecular formula.
Homologous series is a series of organic compounds, that are grouped into a smaller number of series of compound.
General Characteristics of homologous series :
- The members of a series have same functional group.
- Two consecutive members of a homologous series differs each other in their composition
by – CH2unit
CH3 – OH, CH3 – CH2 – OH, CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – OH
- The members of a homologous series can be represented by same general formula.
Aldehyde — CnH2n+1|CHO
Carboyxlic acid — CnH2n+1COOH
- The members of a particular homologous series have almost same chemical properties due to presence of same functional group.
- The physical properties (like solubility, melting point, boiling point, state) of members of a homologous series either gradually increase or decrease with increase in molecular mass.
- The members of a homologous series can be prepared by same or common general method of preparation.
- The first member of homologous series generally shows certain different chemical behavior than other members of the series.
Differentiate between — ‘Molecular formula’ and ‘Structural formula’ — of an organic compound. Write the ‘condensed structural formula and ‘branched structural formula’ of ethene.
State what are ‘Alkyl groups ’. State the alkyl group of the parent alkane — methane and ethane.
Alkyl Group : It is obtained by removing one hydrogen atom from a molecule of an alkane.
Methane : Methyl (Alkyl group)
Ethane : Ethyl (Alkyl group)
State what are ‘Functional groups’. Name the following functional groups —
X = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I ; -C=O; -C-O-C
Functional Groups : An atom, radical or bond which defines the structure of an organic compound and give if its characteristic properties
Explain the terms — ‘Isomers’ and ‘Isomerism’. State the ‘Characteristics of isomers’ with reference to —
Properties of isomers ; Number of isomers with relation to carbon atoms in the isomer.
Differentiate between — ‘Chain isomerism’ and ‘Position isomerism ’ – with suitable examples.
‘Isomers’ and ‘Isomerism
Two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different physical and chemical properties are called isomers and this phenomenon is known as isomerism.
Isomers have the same number of atoms of each element in them and the same atomic weight but differ in other properties. For example, there are two compounds with the molecular formula C2H6O. One is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), CH3CH2OH, a colorless liquid alcohol; the other is dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3, a colorless gaseous ether.
Alkanes with more than three carbon atoms form isomers. The various isomers differ in the framework of the carbon chains.
Differentiate between — ‘Chain isomerism’ and ‘Position isomerism’
Chain isomers: Compounds having same molecular formula with difference in carbon chain pattern like linear or branch are called chain isomers. 1-Pentyne is chain isomer for 3-methyl Butyne.
CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – C = CH and CH3– C(CH3) – C = CH
Position isomers: Compounds having same molecular formula ^ with difference in position of the functional group are called position isomers. 1-Butyne and 2-Butyne are position isomers.
CH3– CH2– C=CH and CH3 – C = C – CH3.
Explain the term – ‘Nomenclature’. State its need with reference to organic compounds. State the basic rules of Nomenclature by the trivial system – with suitable examples. Explain the longest chain rule and the smallest number for functional groups rule of Nomenclature by the IUPAC system – with suitable examples.
(a) Nomenclature :
Nomenclature is the system of assignment of names to organic compounds.
Need for Nomenclature : Very large number of organic compounds with varying molecular structure need a systematic method of nomenclature. Further many a times same molecular formula represents two or more compounds (isomerism).
(b) Nomenclature by Trivial System:
In this method, name of an organic compound is derived from its;
- Source (e.g., benzoic acid is obtained by distillation from gum benzoin, fructose or fruit sugar from fruits etc).
- Latin or Greek origin (e.g., formic acid, HCOOH is present in sting of red ants, formicus in Latin means an ant).
- Properties (e.g., palmitic acid is an acid derived from palm oil etc).
(c) Longest Chain Rule :