Probability RS Aggarwal Class-8 ICSE Maths Goyal Brothers

Probability RS Aggarwal Class-8 ICSE Maths Goyal Brothers Prakashan Solutions Chapter-27. We provide step by step Solutions of Exercise / lesson-27 Graphical Representations of Statistical Data for ICSE Class-8  RS Aggarwal  Mathematics.

Our Solutions contain all type Questions of Exe-27 with Notes to develop skill and confidence. Visit official Website CISCE for detail information about ICSE Board Class-8 Mathematics

Probability RS Aggarwal Class-8 ICSE Maths Goyal Brothers Prakashan Solutions Chapter-27

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Notes on Probability   


Notes on Probability   

Probability means possibility / Chance. It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the occurrence of a random event. The value is expressed from zero to one.

Definition of Probability:
Probability is defined as the numerical method of measuring uncertainty involved in a situation.
It is widely used in the study of mathematics, statistics, gambling, physical science, biological science, weather forecasting, finance etc. to draw conclusions.

An experiment is defined as an action or process that results in well defined outcomes

Formula for Probability

The probability formula is defined as the possibility of an event to happen is equal to the ratio of the number of favourable outcomes and the total number of outcomes.

Formula for Probability

Probability of event to happen P(E) = Number of favourable outcomes/Total Number of outcomes

Random experiment:

An experiment, in which we know all the results, but cannot predict them, is called a random experiment.


The possible results of an experiment are called the outcomes

Probability of an Event

A combination of outcomes is called an event

Assume an event E can occur in r ways out of a sum of n probable or possible equally likely ways. Then the probability of happening of the event or its success  is expressed as

P(E) = r/n

The probability that the event will not occur or known as its failure is expressed as:

P(E’) = (n-r)/n = 1-(r/n)

E’ represents that the event will not occur.

Therefore, now we can say;

P(E) + P(E’) = 1

This means that the total of all the probabilities in any random test or experiment is equal to 1

Probability of an event = .

Probability Terms and Definition

Some of the important probability terms are discussed here:

Term Definition Example
Sample Space The set of all the possible outcomes to occur in any trial
  1. Tossing a coin, Sample Space (S) = {H,T}
  2. Rolling a die, Sample Space (S) = {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Sample Point It is one of the possible results In a deck of Cards:

  • 4 of hearts is a sample point.
  • the queen of clubs is a sample point.
Experiment or Trial A series of actions where the outcomes are always uncertain. The tossing of a coin, Selecting a card from a deck of cards, throwing a dice.
Event It is a single outcome of an experiment. Getting a Heads while tossing a coin is an event.
Outcome Possible result of a trial/experiment T (tail) is a possible outcome when a coin is tossed.
Complimentary event The non-happening events. The complement of an event A is the event, not A (or A’) Standard 52-card deck, A = Draw a heart, then A’ = Don’t draw a heart
Impossible Event The event cannot happen

Exe-27 , Probability RS Aggarwal Class-8 ICSE Maths Goyal Brothers Prakashan Solutions

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