Structure of Chromosome Srijan Publications Solutions ICSE Class-10 Ch-2

Structure of Chromosome Srijan Publications Solutions ICSE Class-10 Ch-2. We Provide Solutions of Very Short Answer Type, Short Answer Type, Long Answer Type Questions and MCQs of Exercise-2 Structure of Chromosome Srijan Publications ICSE Class-10 Ch-2. Visit official Website CISCE  for detail information about ICSE Board Class-10.

Structure of Chromosome Srijan Publications Solutions ICSE Class-10 Ch-2

Board ICSE
Publications Srijan Publications
Subject  Biology
Class 10th
Writer Veer Bala Rastogi
Chapter-2 Structure of Chromosomes
Topics Solutions of  MCQs, Very short and Short Long  Answers Questions
Edition for 2022-2023 Academic Session


Ch-2 Structure of Chromosomes Srijan Publications ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions


Questions 1: Give one word for the following:

(a) Acts as bearer of heredity units.

(b) The specific part of a chromosome that determines hereditary characteristics.

(c) The chromosome in which centromere lies in the middle of chromosome

(d) The bonds by which nitrogenous bases of two polynucleotide chains are joined together.

Answer :

(a) Chromosomes

(b) Gene.

(c) metacentric

(d) hydrogen bonds

Questions 2: State whether the following statements are true or false. If false, rewrite the correct form of statements.

(a) Classification of chromosomes is based on the number of chromomeres

(b) Chromosomes are called hereditary vehicles.

(c) Chromatin is formed of DNA, RNA and acidic proteins.

(d) Nucleotides are structural units of nucleic acid.

(e) DNA is a coiled polynucleotide molecule.

Answer :

(a) False, Classification of chromosomes is based on the position of centromere

(b) False, Chromosomes are called hereditary unit.

(c) False,  Chromatin is formed of DNA and Histone.

(d) False,  Nucleotides are structural units of DNA

(e) True.

Questions 3: Match the columns.

Column A Column B
(a) Centromere (i) J-shaped chromsome
(b) Acrocentric (ii) Chromatin fibres
(c) Gametes (iii) Histones
(d) Beads on string structure (iv) Primary constriction
(e) Basic proteins of chromosome (v) Haploid

Answer :

Column A Column B
(a) Centromere (iv) Primary constriction
(b) Acrocentric (i) J-shaped chromsome
(c) Gametes (v) Haploid
(d) Beads on string structure (iv) Primary constriction
(e) Basic proteins of chromosome (iii) Histones

Questions 4: Given below are sets of certain terms. Without changing the first term, rearrange the remaining terms so as to be in logical sequence as per the direction given in brackets.

(a) DNA, Chromatid, Chromatin fibre, ChromatidChromosome (sequence in chromosome structure)

(b) Nitrogenous base, Nucleoside, DNA, Nucleotide (sequence in DNA structure)

Answer :

(a) DNA,  Chromatin fibre, Chromatid, Chromosome

(b)Nitrogenous base, Nucleoside,  Nucleotide DNA,

B. Short Answer Type Questions.

 Structure of Chromosomes Srijan Publications Solutions ICSE Class-10 Biology Ch-2

Questions 1: Give differences between the following:

(a) Monocentric, dicentric and polycentric chromosomes

(b) Haploid and diploid cells

(c) Chromosome and chromatid

Answer :

(a) Monocentric chromosomes have a single  centromere. Dicentric chromosomes have two centromeres while polycentric chromosomes have multiple centromeres (more than two centromeres)

(b) The most obvious difference between Haploid and Diploid is the number of chromosome sets that are found in the nucleus. Haploid cells are those that have only a single set of chromosomes while diploid cells have two sets of chromosomes.

(c) a chromosome is made up of two strands which are identical to each other and these are called Chromatids

Questions 2: Explain the following terms.

(a) Nucleosome

(b) Kinetochore

(c) Nucleic acid

(d) Polynucleotide chain

(e) Gene

(f) Duplication

Answer :

(a) A nucleosome is a section of DNA that is wrapped around a core of proteins. Inside the nucleus, DNA forms a complex with proteins called chromatin, which allows the DNA to be condensed into a smaller volume. When the chromatin is extended and viewed under a microscope, the structure resembles beads on a string

(b) Kinetochores are large protein complexes that bind to centromeres. By interacting with microtubules and their associated motor proteins, kinetochores both generate and regulate chromosome movement

(c) Nucleic acids are large biomolecules that play essential roles in all cells and viruses. A major function of nucleic acids involves the storage and expression of genomic information. Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, encodes the information cells need to make proteins

(d) A polynucleotide chain is composed of monomers of nucleotide molecules. The structure of DNA is two nucleotide molecules wound together. Even RNA is made of a single chain of polynucleotides

(e) The basic unit of heredity passed from parent to child. Genes are made up of sequences of DNA and are arranged, one after another, at specific locations on chromosomes in the nucleus of cells

(f) a type of mutation in which one or more copies of a DNA segment (which can be as small as a few bases or as large as a major chromosomal region) is produced. Duplications occur in all organisms

C. Long Answer Type Question

Structure of Chromosomes Srijan Publications Solutions ICSE Class-10 Biology Ch-2

Questions 1 : With the help of a diagram, write about different types of chromosomes based on the position of centromere.

Answer :

Chromosomes are classified into four types based on the position of the centromere.

  • These are metacentric, sub-metacentric, telocentric and acrocentric.
  • A chromosome having centromere at the center is called as metacentric chromosome. In this, centromere divides chromosome into two equal arms.
  • A chromosome having centromere slightly away from the center is called as sub-metacentric chromosome.
  • A chromosome having centromere close to one of the end is called as acrocentric chromosome.
  • A chromosome having a terminal centromere is called as telocentric chromosome.

Questions 2: Discuss in brief the replication of DNA.

Answer : DNA replication is the process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules. Replication is an essential process because, whenever a cell divides, the two new daughter cells must contain the same genetic information, or DNA, as the parent cell.

Questions 3: Draw a diagram to depict structure of chromosome.

Answer :

Structure of Chromosome

Questions 4: Give the functions of centromere

Answer : The primary function of the centromere is to provide the foundation for assembly of the kinetochore, which is a protein complex essential to proper chromosomal segregation during mitosis. In electron micrographs of mitotic chromosomes, kinetochores appear as platelike structures composed of several layers

Questions 5: Chromatin fibre is said to represent beads on a string structure. Explain.

Answer : chromatin fibre is said to represent beats on a string structure explain. It’s “beads of string”. The beads are the nucleosomes and string is the linker DNA. In other words, DNA wraps around histone proteins, forming nucleosomes so-called “beads on a string” structure.

— : End of Ch-2 Structure of Chromosomes Srijan Publication ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions :–

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