Acid base and Salt Dalal Simplified ICSE Chemistry Class-10
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Acid base and Salt Dalal Simplified ICSE Chemistry Class-10
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Additional Questions Acid base and Salt Dalal Simplified
Define the following as per ionic theory with examples and ionic equations wherever relevant
(1) Acid — An acid is a compound which when dissolved in water yields – hydronium ions (H3O+ ) as the only positively charged ion.
(2) Base — A base is a compound which reacts with hydronium ions of an acid – to give salt and water
CuO + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2O
(3) Alkali — An alkali is a compound which when dissolved in water yields Hydroxyl ions (OH–) as they are negatively charged ions.
Alkali is a base soluble in water.
(4) Neutralization — | H+| ions of an acid completely or combine with |OH+| ions of a base to give salt and water only.
HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
- Organic and inorganic acids
- Hydracids and oxyacids with examples.
Organic acids – Those acids which are derived from plants, e.g., citric acid, acetic acid, tartaric acid Inorganic acids – Acids derived from minerals e.g. HCl2,h2SO4
Hydracids – Acids containing hydrogen and a non-metallic element other than oxygen, e.g. HCl, HBr, HI.
Oxyacids – Acids containing hydrogen, another element and oxygen, e.g. HNO3, H,SO4.
State on what basis does the strength of an acid and an alkali depend on.
Strength of acids depends upon concentration of hydronium ion |H3O+| present in an aqueous solution
of an acid. Strength of alkali depends on the concentration of the hydroxyl ions |OH–| present in an aqueous solution of an alkali.
Differentiate between (1) strong and weak acid (2) strong and weak alkali with suitable examples and ionic equations.
(1) Strong Acid – Is an acid which dissociates – almost completely in aqueous solution there by producing a – high concentration of hydrogen [H+] ions [or H3O+ions] Examples: Hydrochloric, Sulphuric and Nitric acid.
Weak Acid – Is an acid which dissociates – only partially in a aqueous solution thereby producing a – low concentration of hydrogen [H+] ions [or H3O+ ions].
Examples: Lithium, Sodium and Potassium hydroxide
Weak alkali – Is an alkali which dissociates – only partially in aqueous solution thereby producing a – low concentration of hydroxyl [OH– ] ions.
Examples: Ammonium hydroxide and Calcium hydroxide.
Name the ions formed when – HCl ; HNO3 ; H2SO4 ; CH3COOH ; NaOH and NH4OH ionise in aq. soln.
State giving reasons which is a stronger acid – dil. HCl or cone. H2CO3.
Dil. HCl is a stronger acid than cone. H2CO3
Reason: HCl ionises almost completely in aqueous solution thereby producing a high concentration of Hp ions in aqueous solution. On the other hand, H2CO3 ionises to a very small extent producing a low
concentration of HO+ ions. More the concentration of H3O+ ions in solution, stronger is the acid. Hence dil. HCl is a stronger acid than cone. H2CO3.
State why the basicity of acetic acid is one and acidity of calcium hydroxide is two.
Basicity of an acid is the number of hydrogen ions which can be produced from one molecule of the acids on complete dissociation. Acetic acid, CH.COOH gives one H+ per molecule the acid, hence acetic acid is monobasic i.e., its basicity is one.
Acidity of a base is the number of hydroxyl ions which can be produced from one molecule of the base on complete dissocation. Ca(OH)2 (calcium hydroxide) gives two hydroxyl ions per molecule of the base, hence calcium hydroxide is diacidic i.e., its acidity is two.
Give three reasons with equations wherever required, why sulphuric acid is a dibasic acid.
Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is a dibasic acid as explained below:
It ionises in aqueous solution to produce two hydrogen ions per molecule of the acid.
It contains two replace all hydrogen ions per molecule of the acid.
State how acids are defined as per Arrhenius’s and Lowry – Bronsted’s theory.
Arrhenius Theory –
Acids are substances which – dissociate in aqueous solution to give H+ ions.
Strong acids dissociate – almost completely, while weak acids dissociate partially.
Oxygen atom in water has two Hone pair of electrons’. Explain the meaning of the term in italics. With the help of an electron dot diagram show the formation of hydronium ion and ammonium ion from a water molecule and an ammonia molecule respectively.
A pair of electrons not shared with any other atom for bond formation is called a lone pair of electrons. In water, the central atom – oxygen has two lone pair of electrons as shown ahead:
Structure of water molecule
Formation of hydronium ion- (H3O+): When an acid is dissolved in water the proton (H+) released by the acid add onto the lone pair electrons of the oxygen atom of a water molecule. The proton (H+) accepts the lone pair of electrons forming a coordinate bond (shown by an arrow).
HCl → H+ + Cl–
Water Proton Hydronium ion
Formation of ammonium ion (NH4+): When ammonia gas is dissolved in water, the proton released by water adds onto the lone pair of electrons of the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule. The proton (H+) accepts the lone pair of electrons forming a coordinate bond (shown by an arrow).
State how you would obtain:
- Sulphuric acid from an acidic oxide
- KOH from a basic oxide.
State two chemical properties each with equations of a solution containing
(1) H+ ions
(1) Properties of a solution containing H+ ions: Acids when dissolved in water produce H2O+ or H ions. Typical chemical properties of aqueous solution of acids are: