Cell Cycle, Cell Division Goyal Brothers Prakashan ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions Ch-2 Part-A

Cell Cycle, Cell Division Goyal Brothers Prakashan ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions Ch-2 Part-A.  We Provide Solutions of Test yourself , MCQs, Very Short Answer Type, Short Answer Type, Long Answer Type Questions and Structured / Applications / Skill Type Questions of Exercise-2. Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes. Visit official Website CISCE  for detail information about ICSE Board Class-10 Biology.

Ch-2 Part-A Cell Cycle, Cell Division Goyal Brothers Prakashan ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions

Board ICSE
Publications Goyal Brothers publications
Subject  Biology
Class 10th
Writer Dr. K.K. Aggrawal
Chapter-2 Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
Topics Solutions of MCQ, Very short and Short type questions Part-A
Edition for 2022-2023 Academic Session

Note :-  Before Viewing Goyal Brothers Solutions of Chapter-2 Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes. Read the whole chapter carefully with figure. Make a self written notes including Phases of Mitosis


Test Yourself-1 

Part-A Ch-2 Cell cycle and Cell Division Goyal Brothers Prakashan ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions

(Page-12)

Name the stage of mitosis where the following occurs :

(i) Spindle fibers appear.

(ii) Chromosome are lined up in one plane at equator

(iii) Centrioles start moving apart.

(iv) Nuclear membrane is formed.

(v) Cytokinesis begins.

Answer :

(i) Late Prophase

(ii) metaphase

(iii) early prophase

(iv) telophase

(v) after anaphase


Test Yourself-2 

Part-A Ch-2 Cell cycle and Cell Division Goyal Brothers Prakashan ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions 

(Page-16)

 Fill in the blanks :

(i) In humans, meiosis takes place in ………. and ………….. .

(ii) In flowering plants, meiosis takes place in …………….. and ………… .

(iii) In meiosis, chromosome duplication is followed by …………..

(iv) Meiosis requires ………….. time than mitosis.

(v) Crossing over leads to ……………..

Answer :

(i) testis and ovary

(ii) anther and ovary

(iii) interphase

(iv) more

(v) formation of variation


A. MULTIPLE CHOICE TYPE 

Part-A Ch-2 Cell cycle and Cell Division Goyal Brothers Prakashan ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions

(Page-17)

Choose the most Appropriate Answer

1. Correct sequence of stages in the cell cycle is

(a) G1, S, G2, M

(b) G1, G2, S, M

(c) M, S, G,, G,

(d) G2, G1, 5, M

Answer :

(a) G1, S, G2, M

2. Synthesis phase in the cell cycle is called so, because of the synthesis of more

(a) RNA

(b) RNA and proteins

(c) DNA

(d) Glucose

Answer :

(c) DNA

3. Chromosomes arrange at equatorial plate or spindle division in

(a) prophase

(b) metaphase

(c) anaphase

(d) telophase

Answer :

(b) metaphase

4. A phase which is the reverse of prophase is

(a) metaphase

(b) interphase

(c) telophase

(d) anaphase

Answer :

(c) telophase

5. After mitotic cell division, a female human cell will have

(a) 44+ xx chromosome
(b) 44+ xy chromosome
(c) 22 + x chromosome
(d) 22 + y chromosome

Answer :

(a) 44+ xx chromosome

6. Chromosomes aligned at the centre of the cell during

(a) Metaphase
(b) Anaphase
(c) Prophase
(d) Telophase

Answer :

(a) Metaphase


B. VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

Part-A Ch-2 Cell cycle and Cell Division Goyal Brothers Prakashan ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions

(Page-17)

Questions 1: Name the following:

(i) The stage when sister chromosomes separate from their paired condition.

(ii) Cytoplasmic organelles that help in the manufacture of starch.

(iii) A membrane that disappears during late prophase.

(iv) The cell organelle responsible for photosynthesis.

(v) The type of cell division which occurs in the cells of the reproductive organs.

Answer :

(i) Anaphase the stage when sister chromosomes separate from their paired condition.

(ii) Chloroplast

(iii) nuclear membrane

(iv) Chloroplast

(v) meiosis

Questions 2: Fill in the blanks:

(i) Meiosis takes place in the ..Growth Cell…….. while mitosis takes place in the ..Reproductive.……… cells of the body.

(ii) If a cell with two nuclei is spotted under a microscope, the cell is in …...Telophase…… stage of cell division.

(iii) The spindle fibers are made of ..the microtubule…….

(iv) In plant cells, the cytokinesis is ..formation of cell plate………..

(v) Duplication of DNA occurs in the ……S phase…… stage of cell cycle.

Questions 3:  Mention if the following statements are true or false. If false, rewrite the sentences by changing only the words printed in bold face:

(i) Karyokinesis refers to the division of the nucleus.

(ii) Crossing over occurs in mitosis.

(iii) Duplicated chromosomes remain attracted at a point termed centrosome.

(iv) The resting stage in mitosis is called interphase.

(v) Mitosis is the type of cell division occurring in the cells of injured parts of the body.

Answer :

(i) true

(ii) False, Crossing over occurs in meiosis.

(iii) false , Duplicated chromosomes remain attracted at a point termed chiasmata

(iv) true

(v) false , Mitosis is the type of cell division occurring in the cells of growth parts of the body.

Questions 4: Match the following columns :

Columns I Columns I
(i) Karyokinesis (a) Resting Phase
(ii) Mitosis (b) Reduction division
(iii) Interphase (c) Pairing of homologous chromosome
(iv) Cytokinesis (d) Division of nucleus
(v) Meiosis (e) Somatic cell division
(vi) Synapsis (f) Division of cytoplasm
(vii) Basic unit of life (g) cell

Answer :

Columns I Columns I
(i) Karyokinesis (d) Division of nucleus
(ii) Mitosis (e) Somatic cell division
(iii) Interphase (a) Resting Phase
(iv) Cytokinesis (f) Division of cytoplasm
(v) Meiosis (b) Reduction division
(vi) Synapsis (c) Pairing of homologous chromosome
(vii) Basic unit of life (g) cell

Questions 5: Give the specific function of the following structures found in the body of plants/animals

(i) Ribosomes

(ii) Nucleus

(iii) Vacuoles

(iv) Centrosome

Answer :

(i) Ribosomes– protein synthesis.

(ii) Nucleus– cell division

(iii) Vacuoles- maintain turgor

(iv) Centrosome– organization of the spindle poles during mitosis

Questions 6:  Identify and name the following processes / terms from the statements given below:

(i) Initiates cell division

(ii) Formation of yolk

(iii) Centre of all metabolic activities

(iv) The exchange of chromatid parts between the maternal and paternal chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.

Answer :

(i)  centriole

(ii) The process of formation of yolk in the ovum is called parthenogenesis

(iii) In a cell, different organelles are involved in the regulation of metabolic activities such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, golgi bodies and few more. Moreover, Nucleus is the controller organelle that controls all the other organelles

(iv) During the metaphase of meiosis, there is exchange of chromatid parts between the maternal and the paternal chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. This phenomenon is known as crossing over. The site at which the genetic material is exchanged is called as chiasmata.


C. SHORT ANSWER TYPE 

Part-A Ch-2 Cell cycle and Cell Division Goyal Brothers Prakashan ICSE Class-10 Biology Solutions

(Page-18)

Questions 1: Define:

(i) Cytokinesis in plant cells

(ii) Chiasma

(iii) Heterotypic division

(iv) Homologous chromosomes

Answer :

(i) Cytokinesis occurs by a special mechanism in higher-plant cells—in which the cytoplasm is partitioned by the construction of a new cell wall, the cell plate, inside the cell. The position of the cell plate is determined by the position of a preprophase band of microtubules and actin filaments.

(ii) Chiasmata is the X-shaped structure formed due to the point of contact between paired chromatids during meiosis. It is the point representing the crossover where the homologous chromosomes are joined to each other. Significance: At chiasmata crossing over occurs in the pachytene stage

(iii) Heterotypic or reduction division is the division in which the one diploid cell is converted into two haploid cells

(iv) Homologous chromosomes are defined as two pieces of DNA within an organism who is a diploid (2n) which carry the same genes one from each parent i.e. one from a father and one from the mother

Questions 2: Differentiate between the following:

(i) G1, phase and G2, phase
(i) Karyokinesis and Cytokinesis
(iii) Mitosis and Meiosis
(iv) Tonoplast and Plasma membrane

Answer :

(i)  Differentiate between G1, phase and G2, phase

G1 Phase vs G2 Phase of Cell Cycle

G1 phase is the first phase of the interphase of the cell cycle in which cell shows a growth by synthesizing proteins and other molecules. G2 phase is the third phase of interphase of the cell cycle in which cell prepares for nuclear division by making necessary proteins and other components.
Sub Stage of Inter Phase
The first substage of interphase is a G1 phase. The last substage of interphase is a G2 phase.
Synthesis of RNA and Proteins
Occur in G1 phase for cell growth and DNA replication Occur in G2 phase which is essential for spindle formation and mitosis.
Progression
G1 phase proceeds into S phase where DNA replication occurs. G2 phase proceeds into the mitotic stage.

(ii) Differentiate between Karyokinesis and Cytokinesis

Karyokinesis Cytokinesis
Meaning
Karyokinesis means the process of division of the nucleus.
Cytokinesis means the process of division of cytoplasm.
Division
The nucleus gets divided into two daughter nuclei.
The cytoplasm, cell organelles and the nuclei divide and are passed on to daughter cells equally.
Dependency
It can occur with or without cytokinesis.
It is dependent on karyokinesis.

(iii) Differentiate between Mitosis and Meiosis

  • Mitosis and meiosis are nuclear division processes that occur during cell division.
  • Mitosis involves the division of body cells, while meiosis involves the division of sex cells.
  • The division of a cell occurs once in mitosis but twice in meiosis.
  • Two daughter cells are produced after mitosis and cytoplasmic division, while four daughter cells are produced after meiosis.
  • Daughter cells resulting from mitosis are diploid, while those resulting from meiosis are haploid.
  • Daughter cells that are the product of mitosis are genetically identical. Daughter cells produced after meiosis are genetically diverse.
  • Tetrad formation occurs in meiosis but not mitosis.

(iv) Differentiate between  Tonoplast and Plasma membrane

tonoplast is the membrane that encloses the central vacuole of a plant cell while the plasma membrane is the membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell

Questions 3: What is the importance of meiosis in creating variation?

Answer :

In meiosis, variation occurs, because each gamete (either sperm or egg) contains a mixture of genes from two different parent chromosomes in sexual reproduction. In other words, the genetic coupling of non-identical DNA takes place in meiosis. It results in an offspring, which has the genetic material of two different individuals. A new combination of genetic information is produced in the gametes. This ultimately results in a new and unique set of chromosomes.

Questions 4: Mention three significant changes that occur in a cell during interphase.

Answer :

The three significant changes that occur in a cell during interphase are: (i) The cell grows in size. (ii) New DNA is synthesized as per the old DNA templet. (iii) Synthesis of RNA and protein takes place

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