History And Civics 2016 Solved Paper Previous Year ICSE Question
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History And Civics 2016 Solved Paper Previous Year Question
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Attempt all questions from Section I and any four questions from Section II.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
ICSE History And Civics 2016 (Solved)
Section -1 (40 Marks)
(Attempt All questions from this section)
(a) What is meant by ‘Residuary Powers’ of the Parliament ?  (b) What is the normal term of office of the Lok Sabha ?  (c) State any one subject wherein the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha enjoy co-equal powers in legislation of laws.  (d) Who presides over the meeting of the Rajya Sabha in the absence of the Vice-President of India ?  (e) By whom and on whose advice are the Council of Ministers appointed ?  (f) Name the official procedure by which the President can be removed.  (g) Mention any one important occasion when the President addresses a Joint Session of Parliament.  (h) Name the highest Civil Court in a District.  (i) What is meant by the term ‘Judicial Review’ of the High Court ?  (j) What is meant by ‘Lok Adalat’ ? 
(a) The Parliament can make laws with respect to all those matter which are not mentioned in any of the three lists-the union list, the state list and the concurrent list.
(b) 5 years.
The Union Parliament has co-equal powers with the State Legislatures over the 47 subjects mentioned in the concurrent list.
If there is a conflict between the laws passed by the Union Parliament and a State Legislature on the subject mentioned in the concurrent list, the law passed by the Union Government prevails.
In all the matters of the legislation including the constitutional amendment, the extent of the Rajya Sabha’s power is same as that of the Lok Sabha.
All bills other than the money bills may be introduced in either house and follow the same procedure. (any one)
(d) Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha who is elected from amongst its members, presides over the meeting of the Rajya Sabha in the absence of the Vice-President of India.
(e) President of India appoints Council of Ministers on the advice of Prime Minister of India.
(g) If there is deadlock between the two houses while passing an Ordinary bill in the parliament, the President calls for joint session of both the houses.
Court of the District Judge.
(i) The High Court has the power to exercise Judicial Review and judge the validity of law. If any law, executive order of any ordinance passed by the state legislature or any authority infringes the fundamental rights or contravenes any provision of the constitution the High court can declares it null and void.
(j) Lok Adalat means The People Court. These courts were set up to provide legal aid and quick justice to those who are not in a position to engage lawyers or bear the expenses of the legal proceeding. This eliminated high costs and delay in imparting Justice.
(a) What impact did the uprising of 1857 have on the Mughal Rule ?  (b) Name the Presidents who presided over the first two Sessions of the Indian National Congress.  (c) State two reasons given by Lord Curzon to justify the Partition of Bengal.  (d) Name the famous Pact that demonstrated the unity between the Congress and the Muslim League. When was it signed ?  (e) Why was the Congress session held at Lahore in 1929 significant to the National Movement ?  (f) Mention any two contributions of the IN A to the National Movement.  (g) Why was Mountbatten’s Plan finally accepted by the Congress ?  (h) What made Japan surrender to the Allies in August 1945 ?  (i) State the full forms of the following agencies of the United Nations : UNICEF and UNESCO.  (j) Give any two examples of Human Rights violations. 
(a) The Mughal Empire which had lost its prestige after the life imprisonment of Bahadur Shah, was completely wiped out as an impact of the uprising of 1857.
(b) First session of Indian National Congress was presided by W.C. Banneijee in Mumbai in 1885. Second session of India National Congress was presided by Dadabhai Naoroji in Kolkata in 1886.
Lord Curzons Argument: The area of Bengal was too large and it was difficult for the British to administer efficiently. Secondly, to divide bengalis on religious and territorial ground to weaken the growing nationalism in Bengal. Hence according to Lord Curzon, Partition of Bengal was a administrative necessity.
(d) Lucknow pact demonstrated the unity between the congress and the Muslim League. It was signed in 1916.
(e) The Lahore session was considered historic because under the guidance of congress president Jawaharlal Nehru a resolution for Pooma Swaraj (complete independance), was passed in this session. It was in this session, the Indian National Flag was hoisted and the pledge for independence was taken by the Leaders of the congress.
Contributions of INA:
The INA along with Japanese army overran many territories in south east asia. They captured the strong military post klang Klang.
They gave tough fight to the british forces in assam hills and captured Ukhral and Kohima. The heroic acts of INA inspired Indians.
The Congress accepted the Mountbatten plan due to following reasons:
The Muslim League had obstructed the smooth functioning of the Interim Government earlier so it was difficult for Congress to accept it as an ally in Government.
A smaller united and strong India was better than a big but weak country.
Large scale communal riots and loss of lives and property had clearly shown that much more bloodshed will occur if partition was done.
Any further delay in the transfer of power could bring civil war in India as British were instigating the rulers of the native states for freedom.
The Congress felt that partition would do away with communal electorates and other undemocratic procedures. (any two)
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by United State caused significant damage to these cities of Japan. Huge number of casualties caused by the bombs dropped on these cities which made Japan to surrender to the Allies in August 1945.
(i)UNICEF—United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. UNESCO—United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
(j) Human right violated in Afghanistan. For example :
The women were under almost permanent “House Arrest”. They could not move out of the houses. If at all they moved out, they had to wear burqa.
The film or T.V. set was taboo in Afghanistan, as education in subject other than what is written in Islamic scriptures is prohibited.
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any two questions from this Section.
With reference to the Union Legislature, answer the following questions: (a) How is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha elected ? State two Disciplinary Functions of the Speaker.  (b) Explain two conditions under which a member of Parliament can be disqualified under the Anti-Defection Law.  (c) Give reasons to justify why the Lok Sabha is considered to be more powerful than the Rajya Sabha. 
(a) The speaker of the Lok Sabha is elected from among its own members soon after the newly elected house meets for the first time. Functions:
The speaker preside over the meetings of the house. All speeches and remarks are addressed to the speaker.
He allots time for the discussion and decides who shall have the floor.
The speaker maintains order in the house when members become unruly, he may order them to withdraw or can adjourn the house.
Members belonging to any political party shall be disqualified for being a member of House, if he has voluntarily given up his membership of such political party.
Nominated members of a house shall be disqualified for being a member of the house, if he joins any political party after the expiry of six months from the date on which he takes his seat.
Lok Sabha is considered to be more powerful than the Rajya Sabha because:
Motions of No confidence against the government can only be introduced and passed in the Loksabha if passed the prime minister and his council will resign hence Rajya Sabha has no real power.
The money bills are introduced only in the Lok Sabha. Referring money bills to the Rajya Sabha is a mere constitutional formality.
The council of Ministers is responsible only to Lok Sabha.
The President of India is the Constitutional Head of the Indian Republic. In this context, answer the following questions: (a) How is the President elected ?  (b) Mention three types of Emergencies that the President is empowered to proclaim.  (c) Explain briefly any four ‘Executive Powers’ of the President. 
(a) The President is elected by the members of an Electoral College consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and of the Legislative Assemblies of the states and the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.
(i) National Emergency: It is declared when president of India is satisfied that the security of India or any part there of is threatened or is likely to be threatened by war or external aggression. (ii) Financial Emergency: It is declared when financial stability or credit of India is threatened. (iii) Constitutional Emergency: It is declared when the government of a state Cannot run according to the provisions of the constitution or when a state government is unable to carry out the directions of the Union government due to a political deadlock or failure.
Executives powers of the President:
Power to appoint and remove the High Dignitaries of the state like Attorney— General of India, Auditor-General of India, chief justice and judges of the Supreme Courts and the High Courts, etc.
Administration of Union Territories and Border Areas.
President is the head of all Union officials. All executive orders are issued in the name of the President.
Control over the State Governments during President’s rule.
The Supreme Court has an extensive jurisdiction. In the light of this statement, answer the following questions: (a) What are the qualifications of the judges of the Supreme Court ?  (b) (i) Explain the composition of the Supreme Court.  (ii) How are the Judges of the Supreme Court appointed ? (c) Explain the cases in which the Supreme Court enjoys Original Jurisdiction ? 
(a) Qualification of the Judges of the Supreme Court:
He or she must be a citizen of India.
she should have been, for at least ten years, an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such courts in succession.
and He or she should have worked as a Judge of a High Court continuously for at least five years.
and also He or she should be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President.
(i) Composition: The Supreme Court of India consists of a Chief Justice of India and not more than twenty five other judges, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number. The chief justice of the supreme court with the prior consent of the President may appoint some judges to the supreme court on an adhoc (temporary) basis. (ii) Every judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice and such other Judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts as he may deem necessary for this purpose.
Original Jurisdiction: The Original Jurisdiction extends to those cases which Supreme Court has authority to hear and decide in the first instance. The Supreme Court in its original jurisdiction in following cases—
Dispute between Govt, of India and/or more states.
any Dispute between two or more states.
and Dispute between Union and any state on one side and other states on the other.
The Supreme Court entertains suits for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
Original Jurisdiction extends to such cases in which interpretation of constitution is involved.
Attempt any three questions from this Section.
Explain the Causes of the Great Revolt of 1857, with reference to the following: (a) Any three Political Causes.  (b) Any three Military Causes.  (c) Any four Economic Causes. 
(a) Political Causes:
The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large number of rulers and chiefs. The vigorous application of the policies of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse angered the ruling sections of the society. Rani Lakshmi Bai and Nana Sahib became bitter enemies of the British and led to the revolt in their respective territories.
The annexation of Awadh, on grounds of misgovernment, was greatly resented. The Nawabs of Awadh had always been loyal to the British. The annexation was widely seen as a blatant act of back-stabbing by the British. It deeply hurt the sentiments of the Company’s sepoys because most of them came from Awadh.
Moreover, even under the new regime, the people of Awadh got no relief from oppression. Peasants had to pay even higher revenue and additional taxes were imposed.
The British provided no alternative source of employment to the people who lost their jobs due to the dissolution of the Nawab’s administration. (any three)
Low salary and poor prospects of promotion.
Disproportion between Indian and British troops.
Social distance between officers and Indian soldiers.
Loss of British prestige in Afghan War.
General Service Enlistment Act by which Indians enlisted in British Army could be sent overseas. (any three)
The British Government restrictions on the import of Indian textiles besides imposing heavy import duties on such goods.
India was forced to export raw materials like raw cotton and raw silk at cheaper rates that the British industries needed urgently; plantation products (like indigo, tea); and food grains which were in short supply in Britain.
The British Company confiscated the jagirs of many landlords and taluqars.
The British traders, after the conquest of Bengal, began to purchase raw material for their industries in England from the surplus revenues of Bengal causing drain of wealth from India to England.
Through various National Movements, Gandhiji mobilised public support to win freedom for India. In this context, state the following: (a) Any three causes for Gandhi to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement ?  (b) The name given to the uprising of 1942. Two reasons for launching this mass uprising.  (c) The impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement in India’s freedom struggle. 
(a) Reasons launching to the Non-cooperation Movement are:
In 1918, those peasants who had been facing the effects of famine and drought resorted to Satyagraha to have their demands fulfilled. In 1918-1919 Ahmedabad mill workers strike also received Gandhi’s support. These movements of local character brought Gandhi closer to the life of the people. He would now think of challenging the total authority of the Government.
The Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919 to curb the growing nationalist upsurge in the country as this act gave enormous power to the police to search a place and arrest any person they disapproved of without warrant.
During a protest meeting in Amritsar against Rowlatt Act, the military commander of Amritsar, General O’Dyer ordered firing on a peaceful and unarmed gathering in which 1200 people got killed and 300 got injured, which shocked Gandhiji and he decided to stop co-operation with the British Government at all levels.
Quit India movement. Reasons:
Failure of the Cripps Mission: The failure of the Cripps Mission left no meeting ground between the Congress and the government. It was clear from the proposals that the government was not willing to grant independence in the near future. The Indians were also not happy at the proposals of Cripps Mission because proposals contained within them provisions which could divide India into hundreds of independent provinces.
The communal situation was worsening day-by-day. The Muslim League was demanding a separate state i.e., Pakistan, because all the leaders of the League proclaimed that Muslims could not expect any justice at the hands of the congress. This spoiled the communal situation.
Impact of the Movement:
The movement provided a base to the Congress Gandhi mobilised masses in this movement. All sections of society—peasants, workers, lawyers, students, moneyed classes, women and oppressed people participated in their struggle for freedom.
The movement undermined the power and prestige of the British Government. It created an anti British feeling in the country.
Repression failed to crush the spirit of the people. The movement made the people bold and patriotic.
Gandhi was determined to emancipate the poor and the oppressed. Removal of untouchability and promotion of Khadi became essential tool in Gandhi’s struggle against British rule. Message of Swadeshi was spread.
Another positive achievement was that the movement set the scene of Hindu Muslim unity. Never before any movement received the willing support of Hindus and Muslims alike.
The Partition of Bengal and the Formation of the Muslim League were two important events that had its impact on the National Struggle for Independence. In this context, explain the following: (a) Impact of Swadeshi and Boycott movements as part of the Anti-Partition Movement.  (b) Any three factors leading to the formation of the Muslim League.  (c) Objectives of the Muslim League. 
(a) The impact of Swadeshi and Boycott movement: The anti partition movement gave a new impetus to the concepts of Swadeshi and Boycott. These movements began in 1905 as part of the agitation against the partition of Bengal, when the meeting and procession failed to create any tangible result. So these movements were started with a view to accelerate the pace of the freedom struggle. The main aim was to revive the popularity of the indigenous goods, to Boycott foreign goods, to promote Indian Industries and to provide employment to craftsmen.
Swadeshi was a weapon forged by the people to achieve industrial and economic regeneration. The boycott movement had a comprehensive programme and included not only the exclusion of British good but also renunciation of titles and Government posts and the boycott of council and school. Swadeshi mean “of one’s own country”. It aimed at the promotion of indigenous industries for strengthening the nation. Boycott Movement meant abstaining from the purchase of “British Goods”.
(i) After the revolt of 1857 and the partition of Bengal, the Britishers saw the unity between the Hindus and Muslims. To check the growth of nationalism, they encouraged the formation of Muslim League. (ii) The working of Indian National Congress also gave a setback to the British government. They wanted to create an organisation which could check the popularity of the Congress.
The objectives of the Muslim League:
To promote feelings of loyalty among Indian Muslims towards the British Government.
protect the political and other rights of the Muslims and present them before the Government in mild language.
promote friendly feelings between Muslims and other communities of India without any harm to the objectives of the League.
One of the main objectives of the Muslim League was to keep the Muslim intelligence away from the mainstream of National Movement.
(a) Identify the leader in the picture. Give two examples to state that the leader followed an expansionist policy.  (b) State three factors that led to the rise of Fascism.  (c) State four similarities between the ideologies of Nazism and Fascism. 
(a) Benito Mussolini. Examples: (i) Mussolini used to proclaim, “Italy must expand or perish.” He wanted to acquire colonies for the country to satisfy nationalist urge and for the economic interests. (ii) Mussolini annexed Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in 1936 and also Abenia.
Circumstances that led to the rise of Fascism:
Discontentment after the treaty of Versailles: Italy had joined the Anglo- French alliance against Germany and her allies in the First World War as Britain had promised large chunks of territory after their victory. However the promise went unkempt to a certain extent. She had only two islands in the Adriatic and Aegean seas. Among Italians there was a feeling of being let down.
Economic crises in Germany and Italy, heavy losses, unemployment, shortage of food grains. At the end of the war, thousands of soldiers in Italy had become unemployed. Industrialization had not progressed and unemployment was on the rise. Even the unemployed working class felt the pinnacle of inflation with low wages and poor working conditions. There were frequent strikes and agrarian riots.
Political instability in Germany and Italy: Democracy was introduced in Italy in 1919, Collision Government, different parties and different polices, No continuity policies. Similar conditions existed even in Germany.
Class conflict: The real issue in most part of Europe was whether control of Government and economic system would continue in the possession of aristocracies or they would be in the hands of less privileged majorities.
Threat of communism: The communists inflamed the atmosphere with revolutionary ideas.
Failure of the League of Nations: Failed to check the rise of dictatorships. (any three)
The four similarities between Fascism and Nazism are:
Both Mussolini and Hitler aimed at restoring the status and dignity of their nations by making them strong powers.
aimed at providing strong, stable and efficient Governments.
uphold one party and one man rule, to believe in aggression, to glorify war, anti-democracy.
and Both have faith in totalitarion rule.
With reference to the United Nations and its related Agencies, answer the following questions: (a) Explain any three functions of the WHO.  (b) State the composition of the International Court of Justice.  (c) State any four functions of the General Assembly. 
Answer 10 :
(a)Functions of WHO:
To make efforts to bring improvement in the fields of primary health care, sanitation, safe drinking water, environmental hygiene etc.
To arrange periodical conferences and seminars in order to train personnel from different countries in techniques for combating diseases.
It lays down standards regarding the strength and purity of medicines. It has already set standards for many drugs including biological products.
Composition of International Court of Justice:
The court consists of 15 Judges each separately chosen by the security council and General Assembly of these, those 15 persons who are chosen by majority vote in both bodies are elected the judges of the court.
The court elects its President and Vice President for a three year term. They may when their term expires be re-elected.
The court has power to appoint its registrar.
The functions of the General Assembly:
To discuss matters relating to international peace and security.
To promote friendly relations amongst nations.
The development and codification of International Law.
make recommendations for peaceful settlement by any situation.
receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other organs of the UN.
ensure co-operation in matters of safeguarding human rights and fundamental freedom for all.
promote international co-operation and friendship.
consider and approve the UN Budget and to determine the amount of funds to be contributed by the member nations.
elect the judges of the International Court of Justice.
appoint the Secretary General of the General Assembly on the recommendations of the Security Council. (any four)
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