History And Civics 2017 Solved Paper Previous Year
History And Civics 2017 Solved Paper Previous Year Question ICSE
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How To Solve ICSE History And Civics 2017 Paper (Previous Year)
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History And Civics 2017 Solved Paper Previous Year Question
- Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
- You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
- This time is to be spent in reading the Question Paper.
- The time given at the head of this paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
- Attempt all questions from Section I and any four questions from Section II.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
ICSE History and Civics 2017 Paper (Solved)
Section -1 (40 Marks)
(Attempt All questions from this section)
(a) State any one federal feature of the Indian Constitution.  (b) How are the Rajya Sabha members elected?  (c) Who presides over the Joint Session of the two Houses of Parliament?  (d) Under what condition can a non-member of Parliament be made a Minister?  (e) When can the Speaker of the Lok Sabha cast his vote?  (f) When can the President use his Discretionary power to appoint the Prime Minister?  (g) What is meant by ‘Collective Responsibility’ of the Cabinet?  (h) How long can the Rajya Sabha retain the money bill sent by the Lok Sabha?  (i) State one other qualification required to become a Judge of the High Court, apart from Indian citizenship.  (j) Mention one reason to state that the Lok Adalat has its own advantage. 
Answers 1 :
(а) In a federal government, there is a dual set of governments – Union Government and the State Government. The Union government runs the administration of the entire country and the state governments run the administration of the respective states.
(b) The members of the Rajya Sabha from each State are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly (i.e. the Lower House) of the State. This is done by means of proportional representation called the Single Transferable Voting System.
(c) The Speaker of the Lok Sabha presides over the joint sessions of the Parliament,
(d) He must be elected or nominated to the Parliament within six months.
(e) Generally, the speaker does not participate in the discussions of the House and does not take part in the voting but in case of a tie, he/she exercises his’casting vote.
(f) In the case of no single party getting a clear majority, a coalition of parties makes its claim to form the government, The President has to use his discretionary judgement and invite such a leader to head a government as Prime Minister who can provide a stable government to the country. His judgement and decision are of crucial importance.
(g) The Council of Ministers is jointly or collectively responsible to the Parliament. Once they have reached a decision after full discussion in the meeting under Prime Minister’s Chairmanship, all the Ministers must defend it inside the Parliament and in the public.
(h) 14 Days
(i) Must have held a judicial office for not less than ten years in India or should have been an advocate of High Court for ten years.
(j) A Lok Adalat delivers speedy and inexpensive justice.
(a) Mention any two Repressive Colonial policies of Lord Lytton.  (b) Name the two main Associations that were the precursors of the Indian National Congress.  (c) Give the names of two leaders who led the Home Rule Movement in India.  (d) What was the Khilafat Movement?  (e) State anv two provisions of the Rowlatt Act passed bv the Government in 1919.  (f) Mention any two objectives of the Indian National Army.  (g) Why did Mahatma Gandhi start his historic march to Dandi?  (h) State the significance of the Policy of Appeasement as a cause for the Second World War.  (i) Give the reason as to why Japan invaded China.  (j) Mention any two functions of UNESCO in the field of Education. 
(i) In 1877, he lowered the maximum age limit for the I.C.S. examination from 21 to 19 years, thus making it impossible for the Indians to compete for it,
(ii) He introduced Vernacular Press Act and Indian Arms Act, Both these were passed to pursue the policy of racial discrimination.
(i) The Indian National Association.
(ii) The East India Association.
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant.
(d) The movement was launched after the First World War by two Ah brothers, Muhammed Ah and Shaukat Ah to protest against the injustice done to the Muslims of Turkey and to protest against the threat to the position and the dignity of the Turkish Sultan.
(i) The Act gave enormous powers to the government to redress pohtical activities, and allowed detention of pohtical prisoners without a trail for two years.
(ii) The pohce could search a place and arrest any person they disapproved without warrant.
(f) (i) The aim of the army was to overthrow the British Raj in colonial India, with Japanese assistance.
(ii)To estabhsh an Interim Government.
(i) Lahore Session and the Demand for Complete Independence : The failure of the British Government to give Dominion Status to India and several other developments in 1929 hardened the Congress attitude. So, at its Lahore Session, presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru in December, 1929, the Congress passed resolution of ‘Puma Swaraj’, and also took steps to launch a programme of Civil Disobedience.
(ii) Gandhi’s Eleven Demands : On 30th January, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi in a statement, put forward Eleven Demands to correct two injustices done to the Indians, but Gandhiji’s demands were declared to be unrealistic by the Viceroy.
England and France followed a policy of appeasement towards Germany. They did not care to enforce the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, so Hitler started to flout it. When Hitler attacked and annexed Austria, Britain and France did not try to stop him. The heads of four nations – Germany, Italy, Britain and France met at Munich on September 28, 1938 and decided to hand over Sudetanland to Germany. The Czechs were persuaded by them to accept the Munich Pact in the name of world peace. But actually, they were appeasing Hitler at the cost of Czechoslovakia.
(i) In Asia, Japan harboured expansionist desires. It attacked China in 1931 and annexed Manchuria. China appealed to the League of Nations to declare sanctions against Japan, Britain and France leading members of the League ignored the appeal. In 1933, Japan left the League of Nations and started occupying the British and American properties in China. Britain and France followed the policy of appeasement under which they ignored aggressive policy of Japan, thinking that Japanese could be used to weaken China.
The Japanese were determined to dominate the Far East. America warned Japan of the dire consequences but Japan ignored. She joined “Rome-Berlin-Tokyo” Axis. She also attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbour.
(j) (i) It has set up educational planning centres which prepare specialists in the theories and methods of education. For example, International Institute of Educational Planning in Paris.
(ii) Four main areas of focus to provide basic education for all, to expand access to basic education, improve the quality of basic education and education for the 21 st century.
PART – II [50 MARKS] History and Civics 2017 Solved ICSE
SECTION – A
(Attempt any two questions from this Section)
The Powers and Functions of the Indian Parliament are wide ranging. In
this context answer the following :
(a) Explain three ways by which the Legislature exercises control over the Executive. .  (b) Mention any three special powers of the Rajya Sabha that is usually not enjoyed by the other House.  (c) Mention any two Judicial powers and any two Electoral powers of the Indian Parliament. 
Control over Executive : The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. They remain in office as long as they continue to enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha, by simple majority. The Parliament exercises its control over the executive as given below :
(i) Various Motions : The Question Hour, Call Attention Motion, Half an Hour Discussion are the devices through which the House seeks information from the Government.
(ii) Adjournment Motion : With the passing of the Adjournment Motion, the routine business of the House is postponed. The House then discusses Government’s acts of omission or commission on a matter of urgent national importance.
(iii) Censure Motion and the No-Confidence Motion : Censure Motion, expressing disapproval of the policies of the Government may be moved against the Council of Ministers or an individual Minister in the Lok Sabha. Adoption of the Censure Motion against the Government would result in the resignation of the Council of Ministers. But if it is against an individual Minister as the case may be, then only the individual Minister has to resign.
A No-Confidence Motion against the Council of Ministers may be moved in the Lok Sabha by a leader of the Opposition supported by at least 50 members. It is taken up for discussion within ten days. If it is passed, the Government has to resign.
The Rajya Sabha performs the following functions, as per its Powers in relation to the Lok Sabha :
- According to Article 249 if the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution on any topic of national interest to empower the parliament to make law, on any topic enlisted in the state list, with a majority of votes, then the parliament gains authority to make that law.
- It can create any new All India service by passing a resolution in favour by a majority of a 2/3rd majority.
- It has the power to pass the declaration of emergency. In the case of a proclamation of emergency, if the Lok Sabha is lying dissolved or it has been dissolved with the proclamation of emergency, the Rajya Sabha holds the command to continue beyond the stipulated period of 2 months.
Judicial Powers :
- The Rajya Sabha can impeach the President on the charge of violating the Constitution.
- It can pass a special address to remove a judge of the Supreme Court or High Courts.
- Along with the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha can pass resolutions for the removal of some high officers like the Attorney General of India, Comptroller and Auditor General, Chief Election Commissioner etc. When such a resolution is passed, the President can remove these officers from office.
Electoral Powers :
- The elected members of the Rajya Sabha can take part in the election of the President.
- The members of the Rajya Sabha can take part in the election of the Vice-President.
- They can elect the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha from amongst its members.
The Union Executive which consists of the President, Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers is a powerful body in a Parliamentary Democracy. In this context answer the following questions :
(a) State the position of the Prime Minister and state any two of his powers in relation to the President.  (b) Mention the three categories of Ministers in order of their rank and status.  (c) Mention any four Legislative powers of the Cabinet. 
Answers 4 :
(i) The Prime Minister is the channel of communication between the Cabinet and the President. He conveys Cabinet’s decisions to the President, and keeps him informed of all matters of the government, national or foreign.
(ii) The Prime Minister advises the President to summon and prorogue the sessions of the Parliament, and to dissolve the Lok Sabha.
(iii) The Prime Minister advises the President in appointing or removing the High officials.
There is no provision for categories of Ministers in the Indian Constitution but as per old practice there are four categories of Ministers :
(i) Cabinet Ministers : They are the most important members of the Council of Ministers. They are usually senior leaders, have a right to attend Cabinet meetings and participate in the decision making. They hold important portfolios like Home, External Affairs, Railways, Defence, Finance, etc.
(ii) Ministers of State : They do not have independent charge of Ministry, they do not attend Cabinet meetings until invited to do so. But as per recent practice some of them are entrusted with independent charge.
(iii) Deputy Ministers : They have to help senior Ministers. They do not attend Cabinet meetings, unless specially invited.
(iv) Parliamentary Secretaries : They assist the Ministers in the Parliament.
(i) The sessions of the Parliament are summoned by the President on the
advice of the Cabinet. The initiative in this matter is taken by the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs. The Cabinet decides dates for holding sessions and for proroguing the Parliament.
(ii) The special address that the President delivers to the Parliament is prepared by the Cabinet and the President simply reads it.
(iii) The Cabinet gets the bills drafted. The members of the Council of Ministers introduce, explain and defend the bills in the Parliament and get them passed.
(iv) The President issues ordinances at the instance of the Cabinet.
Explain With reference to the powers and functions of the High Court, briefly the meaning and scope of the following:
(a) Its Appellate Jurisdiction.
(b) The High Court as a Court of Record.
(c) Judicial Review.
Appellate Jurisdiction means that the High Court has power to accept appeals against the decision of District Court in civil as well as criminal matters. The High Court hears the appeal in the following cases :
- Against the judgement of Assistant Sessions Judge, Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate when the punishment exceeds four years.
- Against the judgement of Assistant Sessions Judge, where the sentence of imprisonment to a convict exceeds seven years.
- A sentence of death must be confirmed by the High Court.
- When an acquittal is granted by Sessions Judge in a State case, the State can take the appeal to the High Court.
The High Court is a Court of Record. This imphes that:
- Its judgements are kept as a record, and are used as precedent. It is binding on all subordinate courts in the State. But in other High Courts, the judgement of a High Court can be used only in support of an argument in a case before it.
- If a person commits contempt of a High Court, it has the authority to punish him. The Supreme Court or the Parliament cannot deprive the High Court of this power.
(c) Judicial Review is the special power vested in the Judiciary by which it examines the constitutionality of the laws, passed by the legislature and the acts of the government. If in view of the court, any executive order or any law passed by the legislature violates any provision of the constitution, it declares it unconstitutional.
SECTION – B History and Civics Solved Paper ICSE 2017
(Attempt any three questions from this Section)
With reference to the rise of ‘National Consciousness’ in India, explain the following :
(a) The influence of Western Education.  (b) Any three contributions of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.  (c) The development of Modern means of Transport and Communication. 
Britishers introduced Enghsh education as some Indians with English education were needed to work at the lower levels of administration. But it became one of the most important factors in the promotion of national consciousness.
(i) It brought the advanced knowledge of the world to the people of India. Because of this, Indian leaders themselves made efforts for the spread of English education.
(ii) Knowdedge of Enghsh proved to be a boon as the young men educated through Enghsh medium were introduced to the liberal ideas of the west, such as freedom, democracy and nationalism. They were highly impressed by the teachings of Garibaldi, Mazzini, Rousseau etc.
(iii) As India wras a very vast country with different languages, Enghsh was a common language and proved to be a hnk language through which people living in different regions began to communicate. So, English was responsible for the unification of such a vast country.
(iv) The educated Indians played a leading role in spreading nationalistic ideas. They also started many religious and social reform movements which helped in uniting the Indians. It was through these movements that they came to know about their pohtical rights.
(i) He condemned evil customs like sati, purda, child-marriage, forced widowhood, polygamy, female infanticide and discrimination against women.
(ii) He began a struggle against the caste distinctions, prevailing in the society including the evil of untouchability.
(iii) Raja Ram Mohan Roy laid the foundation of an English school and spread of education of modern subjects, so that western knowledge could come within the reach of Indian students.
(i) Introduction of railways in India revolutionised the socio-economic life of the people. Beside, communication became quicker and journeys more comfortable and cheaper.
(ii) The telegraph and postal system provided by the British proved helpful to organize an all India movement which otherwise would have been impossible.
(iii) The Railway network spread throughout India helped to fight famines and thus surplus produce of one area could be transported to famine stricken area rapidly. This raised the economic status of the people and give them courage to fight for their rights.
The conflict between the two sections of the Congress came to surface in its Session in 1906 at Calcutta. In this context explain the following:
(a) The Split in the Congress in 1907.  (b) With reference to the picture given below, answer the following: 
(i) What were the three personalities popularly known as?
(ii) Which section of the Congress did they represent?
(iii) Mention two of their popular beliefs.
(c) State any four methods that they advocated for the achievement of their aims. 
(i) The Extremist leaders of the National Congress wanted to propose the name of Lala Lajpat Rai for the presidentship of the Congress against the official candidate Dr. Rash Behari Bose. This gave rise to separation between the two wings which led to the split in the Congress in 1907.
(ii) To placate the Assertive Nationalists the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1906 A.D. adopted “Su araj” as its goal and passed resolutions supporting Swadeshi and Boycott and National educaion. But the moderate section in the Congress did not like this development. The Radicals wanted to extend the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement to rest of India but the Moderates wanted to confine it to Bengal.
(i) Lai Bal, Pal
(ii) They represented Aggressive/Assertive nationalists.
(iii) (a) Freedom is the birth right of every Indian.
(b) Supported the swadeshi goods and against the use of imported goods.
The Aggressive Nationalists used Swadeshi, Boycott, National Education, Non-cooperation and self-sacrifice as some of the methods to gain independence.
(i) Swadeshi : Swadeshi means producing necessary items in one’s own country or ‘of one’s own country.’ The Swadeshi idea was popularised by occasional bonfires of foreign cloth, salt and sugar.
(ii) Boycott: The promotion of Swadeshi was accompanied by the advocacy of Boycott. Swadeshi and Boycott were two sides of the same coin. Tilak said, “When you accept Swadeshi, you must boycott foreign goods.” Swadeshi and Boycott were not confined to goods only. Swadeshi gradually came to include everything Indian.
(iii) National Education : In order to achieve the objectives of the national movement, many new educational institutions were set up. According to Tilak, the highlights of National Education were to be in the following areas : Secular education ; Religious or moral education ; Political education and Vocational or Industrial education.
(iv) Passive Resistance, i.e. non-cooperating with the British Government by boycotting government service, courts, schools and colleges.
The period between 1920 to 1947 was marked with major events and reforms that finally led us to our Independence. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) State three provisions of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact as a result of the Civil Disobedience Movement.  (b) How did the Congress and the Muslim League respond to the Cabinet Mission Plan?  (c) Mention any four clauses of the Cabinet Mission Plan. 
(i) Withdrawal of all ordinances issued by the British Government imposing curbs on the activities of the Indian National Congress.
(ii) Release of prisoners arrested for participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(iii) To allow the Indians who lived near sea shore to manufacture and sell salt.
(b) The proposals of Cabinet Mission were accepted by the Congress with some reservations. It suggested that grouping of provinces should be optional but not compulsory. The Congress rejected the scheme of Interim Government because of its limited powers and status. It also had objection of parity with the Muslim League.
(i) Federal Government : It recommended a federal type of government for the whole of India.
(ii) Constituent Assembly : A Constituent Assembly consisting of 389 members – 292 members from provinces. 4 from the territories governed by Chief Commissioner and 93 from Indian Princely States would draft the Constitution of India.
(iii) Division of Provinces : There would be three groups of provinces.
(iv) Formation of Interim Government : An Interim Government at the Centre consisting of representatives of all communities would be installed on the basis of party between the representatives of the Hindus and the Muslims.
The 1914 and 1939 Wars that engulfed almost the entire world, were known as World Wars due to its unprecedented impact and damage. In this context, answer the following:
(a) Explain the immediate cause of the First World War.  (b) Explain the consequences of the Second World War with reference to the Cold
War.  (c) Mention any four terms of the Treaty of Versailles which affected Germany after World War I. 
The Sarajevo Incident : In June 1914, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the Heir-Apparent to the throne of Austria went on an official visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. There, on June 28, 1914, he and his wife were shot dead. The assassin, Gavrilo Princep, was a nineteen year old Bosnian. This dual murder had been planned in Serbia by a secret society of patriotic t errorists, called the “Black Hand.”
The Austrians blamed the Serbians for this crime, as the assassin and the fellow conspirators had received their guns and bombs in the Serbian capital, with the help of Serbian officials. Presuming this to be true, Austria made eleven demands and sent a stiff ultimatum to Serbia on 23rd July, to apprehend the criminals and hand them over to the Austrian government. Austria also sought a ban on anti-Austrian publications, anti-Austrian meetings and institutions in Serbia.
Arms Race and Militarisation : The Cold War set in motion a mad race for armaments. Both the blocs spent huge sums on arms and amassed deadly weapons. The Americans lost the nuclear weapon monopoly when Russia exploded its first Atom Bomb in 1949. Once Soviet Russia developed its nuclear weapon, she became a rival of the United States and the two came to be recognised as Super Powers.
Formation of Military Alliances : The Cold War led to the formation of various alliances like.
- Nato (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)
- Seato (South-East Asia Treaty Organisation)
- Cento (Central Treaty Organisation)
- The Warsaw Pact, etc.
Setback to the United Nations : The Cold War gave a major setback to the working of the United Nations. The rivalry between the two Blocs barred admission of certain nations to the UNO. It was in 1955 that Albania, Austria and Bulgaria were able to join the United Nations. The USA did not allow for a very long time the entry of China also to the UNO. This prevented the world body from attaining a truly universal character.
(i) Germany was held guilty of aggression. She was to pay the cost of the war called war-indemnity or reparation to the victor nations to the tune of 33 billion dollars as compensation of the war.
(ii) Germany was to evacuate the places she had captured during the war.
(iii) The German area of Rhine Valley was to be demilitarized.
(iv) The German territory to the west of Rhine Valley was to be occupied by the Allied troops for 15 years.
(v) Germany was to return Alsac and Lorane to France; she was to hand over Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium ; she w as to give Scheleswig to Denmark. Danzig was to be a free port in the Polish territory.
The horrors of the two World Wars, led to the formation of the United Nations Organisation, while the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement followed later. In this context, answer the following:
(a) Mention any three aims and objectives of the United Nations Organisation.  (b) Explain any three functions of the Security Council.  (c) Explain any four factors that led to the formation of the Non Aligned Movement. 
(a) The United Nations Organisation was established on October 24, 1945 with its headquarters at New York (USA) with the aim to save the coming generation from the scourge of another War.
Main objectives of the UNO are :
- Human dignity
- Human brotherhood
(b) (i) To maintain international peace and security.
(ii) To investigate any dispute or situation which may lead to friction.
(iii) To recommend methods of settling such disputes.
(iv) To formulate plans for the regulation of armaments.
(c) (i) Global tension caused by Cold War : Most of the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa realised that the division of the world into two power blocs was not in their larger interest and this might endanger world peace. These nations felt that by maintaining distance from both the super , powers they would put off the danger of another war.
(ii) Struggle against imperialism : The newly independent nations opted for non-alignment because most of these countries remained under big powers for a long period of time. They wanted to enjoy their newly acquired freedom and the power that had come with it.
(iii) Right of independent judgement : The newly independent nations were able to keep their own identity by not aligning with any of the power blocs. They wanted to solve their problems themselves without any outside interference or influence.
(iv) Use of moderation in relations to all big powers : The newly independent nations wanted to promote goodwill and co-operation among the nations of Asia and Africa and to explore and advance their mutual interests by establishing friendly relations with all the nations.
(v) Economic development : Most of the newly independent countries were facing problem of poverty and underdevelopment. To come out of this they needed financial and technical assistance from both the power blocs.
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