ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
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ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
-: Select Your Topics :-
Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A, two
- questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Part-I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions
ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
Question 1. 
(i) Name the leader of the ‘Indian National Congress who popularized the vision of a socialist India.
(ii) Why did the Congress ministries resign in 1939 ?
(iii) What was the significance of the Lahore Session of the Muslim League (1940) ?
(iv) Name any two states whose union with India involved armed intervention by the Indian army.
(v) Name two major political parties that played an important role during the General Elections of 1967.
(vi) Which state was formed in 1953, on the basis of linguistic identity ?
(vii) Name the leaders of India and Pakistan between whom the Tashkent Agreement was signed (1966).
(viii) Why did Dalai Lama seek refuge in India ?
(ix) State any two major observations made by the Committee, on the Status of Women in India, Towards Equality Report (1974).
(x) What was the primary demand of the All Assam Students’Union ?
(xi) State one important example of Anglo- French appeasement of Hitler (1938) that made war inevitable.
(xii) What was the significance of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour ?
(xiii) What was the primary objective behind Mao Tse Tung’s “Hundred Flowers Campaign” ?
(xiv) Name the nationalist leader under whose leadership Ghana became independent.
(xv) Give one example to show that the Super Powers wanted to reduce East-West tension after the Cuban Missile Crisis.
(xvi) What is the full form of CIS ?
(xvii) Name the most outstanding leader of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa.
(xviii) Name the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW).
(xix) Why did Nasser nationalise the Suez Canal ?
(xx) Name the Agreement signed between the PLO and Israel (1993) that indicated a change in their respective attitudes.
(i) Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) was the foremost leader of the Indian National Congress who popularised the vision of a socialist India.
(ii) On 3rd September, 1939, Lord Linlithgow declared India to be at war with Germany. The Indian National Congress objected strongly and alleged that the Viceroy had involved India in the World War II without consulting the Central Legislature and the provincial governments. They were the dominant party and had formed the government in eight of the eleven provinces. The Congress working committee passed a resolution and demanded an immediate transfer of power in return for cooperation of the war efforts. Lord Linlithgow did not respond satisfactorily to this. Therefore, the Congress, on October 22nd, 1939 asked the Congress Ministries to resign.
(iii) On 23rd March, 1940 at the Lahore Session, the Muslim League adopted Jinnah’s two nation theory and passed the historic Pakistan Resolution which demanded the division of India and the establishment of an independent, sovereign Muslim State. This ultimately led to the division of the country in 1947.
(iv) Kashmir; Junagarh; Hyderabad; (any two)
(v) Indian National Congress and the Swatantra Party.
(vi) Andhra Pradesh.
(vii) Tashkent Agreement, (January 10, 1966) accord signed by India’s Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri (who died the next day) and Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan, ending the 17-day war between Pakistan and India of August-September 1965. A cease-fire had been secured by the United Nations Security Council on September 22,1965.
(viii) On March 10,1959, Dalai Lama received an invitation from a Chinese army officer to attend a drama festival. Though the invitation looked like a simple one, the conditions applied by the Chinese made everyone understand that it was a Chinese play to take him into custody as one of the condition was that the personal security staff of Dalai Lama would not be allowed to carry any weapon. Thousands of Tibetans gathered in front of the Narbulinka palace and decided that Dalai Lama should escape from Lhasa. Dressed like, a common army man, he left Lhasa and came down to India.
1. It observed that more than a hundred million women were “missing” (in the sense that their potential existence had been eliminated either through sex selective abortion, infanticide or inadequate nutrition during infancy).
2. There are discriminatory social-cultural practices, political and economic processes which adversely affect the women in India.
(xi) One important example was the Munich Conference of 1938, when the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia was handed over to Germany. Neither the Czechs nor the Russians were invited to the conference. The Czechs were told that if they resisted they would receive no help from Britain or France.
(xii) The US Naval Base at Pearl Harbour, Hawaii was attacked by the Japanese on the morning of December 7, 1941. The Japanese had planned and executed the surprise attack in order to dishearten the American people and kept the United States out of World War II. Instead the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour riled the emotions of the American people and spurred their entry into the war. Until then, USA had remained neutral though they provided Britain with massive financial aid under the Lend Lease Act of April 1941. This brought USA into war, and transformed it in a global conflict.
(xiii) In China, industrialization had produced a class of technicians and engineers who were critical of the party cadres. The cadres in turn thought these experts would undermine their authority. Therefore, Mao Tse Tung called for open dialogue and discussion between the cadres and the experts which would improve their mutual relationship. He said, “Let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend.”
(xiv) Kwame Nkrumah ruled Ghana from its independence in 1957 to 1966 when the army removed him.
(xv) In July 1963 the USSR, the USA and Britain signed a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty agreeing to carry out nuclear tests only underground to avoid polluting the atmosphere.
(xvi) Commonwealth of Independent States.
(xvii) Nelson Mandela
xviii) Betty Friedan, gender activist and writer.
(xix) The Americans canceled a promised grant of 46 million dollars for building the Aswan Dam. Nasser retaliated by nationalizing the Suez Canal intending to use the income from it to finance the Dam.
(xx) It was the Oslo Accords which was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It was the first face-to-face agreement between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
Part—II (60 Marks)
ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
Answer five questions in all, choosing two questions from Section A, two questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
(a) What were the main proposals of the Cabinet Mission Plan ? 
(b) What led . to the observance of Direct Action Day by the Muslim League, on August 16, 1946 ? 
(a) Main Provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan : The Cabinet Mission Proposal two-tiered federal plan which was expected to maintain national unity while conceding the largest measure of regional autonomy :
(i) There was to be a federation of the provinces and the States, with the federal central controlling only defence, foreign affairs and communications.
(ii) At the same time, individual provinces
could form regional unions to which they could surrender by mutual agreement some of their powers. ,
(iii) There would be three groups of provinces :
- Group ‘A’ was to include Madras, Bombay, U.P., Bihar, Central Province and Orissa,
- Group ‘B’ was to comprise Punjab, Sindh, N.W.F.P. and British Baluchistan (Muslim majority in most of the areas),
- Group ‘C’ was to include Bengal and Assam.
These groups would draft their own constitutions in consultation with their respective provinces included in each group.
(iv) A Constituent Assembly consisting of 389 members-292 from provinces, 4 from territories governed by Chief Commissioners and 93 from Indian
Princely States would draft the Constitution of India.
(v) An interim government at the Central consisting of representatives of all the communities, provinces would be installed on the basis of parity between the representatives of the Hindus and Muslims.
(b) Observance of Direct Action Day The elections to the Constituent Assembly under the Cabinet Mission Plan were held in My 1946, seat of the Congress 212 out of 298, Muslim League won 73 seats. The League apprehensive of the overwhelming strength of the Congress demanded appointment of two different constituent assemblies. On 27th July, 1946, Jinnah addressing the All India Muslim League attached the cabinet Mission Plan in general and Lord Wavell in particular and also charged him for playing in the hands of the Congress.
Muslim League withdraw its early acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan and announced the programme of Direct Action day. The working committee of the Muslim League met on 30th July and fixed 16th August as the Direct Action Day throughout the country. It would be observed all over India by holding meetings, taking out processions and organizing big rallies.
However, on that day the worst holocaust took place at Calcutta. During the four days that followed Muslims and Hindus indiscriminately murdered each other. Women and children were killed in broad daylight. Arson, rape, murder and pillage were rampant. More than 4,000 people lost their lives and 100,000 residents were left homeless in Calcutta. This violence sparked off further religious riots in the surrounding regions of Noakhali, Bihar, United Provinces (modern Uttar Pradesh), Punjab, and the North Western Frontier . Province. These events sowed the seeds for the eventual Partition of India.
The first General Election in India (1952) was a landmark event in the history of independent India. Discuss. 
Independent India’s first polls under its brand new Constitution were spread over five months, between October 1951 and February 1952.
After India became independent on August 15, 1947, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru formed the first union cabinet with 15 members picked from a wide range of communities and some known detractors. Just before the first election, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee (industries minister under Nehru) broke away to set up the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, representing the Hindu right wing. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar formed the Scheduled Caste Federation, later the Republican Party of India. Another high- profile Congress leader, J.B. (Acharya) Kriplani, founded the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party. Ram Manohar Lohia and J.P. Narayan, were the forces behind the Socialist Party.
The communists, having just abandoned an armed struggle in Telangana, too contested 49 seats. There was no tradition of a leader of the opposition then. The Congress secured four times as many votes as the closest opponent. The importance of this election was that democracy took a giant step forward. These elections were the biggest experiment in democracy anywhere in the world. The elections were held on the basis of universal adult franchise. All those who were twenty- one years of age or older had the right to vote. There were over 173 million voters, most of them poor, illiterate, and rural, and having had no experience of elections. The big question at the time was how would the people respond to this opportunity.
Many were doubtful that such an electorate would be able to exercise its right to vote in a politically mature and responsible manner. Some said that democratic elections were not suitable for a caste-ridden, multi-religious, illiterate and backward society like India’s and that only a benevolent dictatorship would be effective politically in such a society. The coming elections were described by some as ‘a leap in the dark’ and by others as ‘fantastic’ and as ‘an act of faith.
India’s electoral system was developed according to the directives of the Constitution. The Constitution made a provision for an Election Commission. It was to be headed by a Chief Election Commissioner, to conduct elections. It was to be independent of the executive or the parliament or the party in power.
There was a house-to-house survey to register the voters. With over 70 percent of the voters being illiterate, the candidates were to be identified by symbols, assigned to each major party and independent candidates, painted on the ballot-boxes (this was later changed to symbols on the ballot papers). The voters were to place the ballot papers in the box assigned to a particular candidate, and the ballot was secret. Over 224,000 polling booths, one for almost every 1000 voters, were constructed and equipped with over 21/2 million steel ballot-boxes, one box for every candidate. Nearly 620,000,000 ballot papers were printed. About a million officials supervised the conduct of the polls. Of the many candidates, whoever got the largest number of votes would be elected. It was not necessary for the winning candidate to have a majority.
In all, candidates of over fourteen national and sixty-three regional or local parties and a large number of independents contested 489 seats for the Lok Sabha and 3,283 seats for the state assemblies. Of these, 98 seats for the former and 669 for the latter were reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Nearly 17,500 candidates in all stood for the seats to the Lok Sabha and the state legislatures. Despite illiteracy and poverty the electorate in India has developed and become really mature as we can see today.
(a) What steps did the Congress Government take after the imposition of Emergency by Indira Gandhi in 1975 ? 
(b) What was the immediate impact of this Emergency on the common people? 
(a) At 6 a.m. on 26th June, 1975, members of the Union Cabinet were faced with the fact that an Emergency had been declared.
The first step the Congress Government took was to jail leaders and legislators of opposition ‘ parties, student activists, trade unionists or anyone with the slightest connection to the Jana Sangh, The Congress (O), The Socialists or other groups opposed to the Congress including Jayprakash Narayan, Morarji Desai and the Rajmatas of Gwalior and Jaipur.
Thousands were arrested under MISA- Maintenance of Internal Security Act. The Prime Minister said that there was a need for a ‘New Spirit of Discipline and Morale’. Government copywriters began to churn out slogans such as ‘Discipline Makes the Nation Great’. ‘Talk Less, Work More’, ‘Be Indian, Buy Indian’, “Efficiency is our Watchword”. The New Economic Programme was put through. The slogan was “Garibi Hatao”. The Prime Minister offered the ‘20 Point Programme for Economic Progress’ which promised a reduction in prices of essential commodities, speedy imple-mentation of land reforms, the abolition of indebtedness and of bonded labour, higher wages for workers and lower income taxes for the middle class.
A series of Constitutional Amendments were passed. The 38th Amendment passed on 22nd July, 1975 barred Judicial Review of the Emergency. The 39th Amendment stated that the election of the Prime Minister could not be challenged by the Supreme Court, but only by a body constituted by Parliament. The Supreme Court, too, supported the Government by ruling that detentions without trial were legal under the new dispensation. The 42nd Amendment gave unprecedented powers to the Parliament. It could now extend its own term. Laws passed by the Parliament were immune from judicial scrutiny and strengthened the powers of the Center over the State.
In January 1976, when the term of the DMK Government ended in Tamil Nadu, the Center ordered President’s Rule. The same was applied to Gujarat. This is how the Congress made itself supreme all over India.
Most importantly, freedom of the Press was curbed. A system of pre-censorship was put in place whereby editors had to submit for scrutiny and approval of any article that criticized the Government. There were guidelines as to what constituted and what did not constitute as news. Even jokes and cartoons tinged with satire were forbidden.
The Congress Government supported the programme of Sanjay Gandhi who formulated a 5-Point Programme to complement his mother’s 20-Point Programme. These dealt with family planning, afforestation, abolition of dowry, removal of illiteracy and slums. It was his forced sterilization programme and indiscriminate bull dozing of slums that finally led to the downfall of Indira Gandhi and the Congress Government.
(b) Initially the Emergency, which followed a strife filled decade was welcomed by the middle class. The crime rate came down, the trains ran on time, there was a sense of alertness and discipline. There was a good monsoon in 1975 ensuring that prices were low. The average Indians did not care for the freedom of the press and expression. They wanted economic progress and above all peace even at the cost of personal rights. The 20- Point Programme brought stabilization and growth of the economy.
The business community were specially elected. Even small hotel owners had been hounded by unions. Even J.R.D. Tata felt that things had gone too far with strikes, boycotts and demonstrations. Hardly anyone resigned or left their jobs in protest against the Emergency. Then Gandhi had called for non-cooperation, thousands of teachers, lawyers, judges, even ICS officers had resigned. But now only a handful resigned in protest. These include Fali Nariman who resigned as Additional Solicitor General, M.L. Dantewala, who refused to continue as an advisor to the Reserve Bank and Bagaram Tulpule, who resigned from his office in the Public Sector.
In the Parliament the Opposition MPs who had been jailed but allowed to attend the session to ratify the Emergency protested and walked out and later boycotted the session. Mrs. Gandhi was accused of betraying India for the sake of personal ends and reducing Parliament to a farce and an object of contempt.
The resistence on the streets took a serious turn. On 14th November 1975, the Lok Sangharsh Samiti began a Satyagraha in Bombay. The protesters shouted slogans such as “down with dictatorship” and “JP Jindabad”. Within a month over a thousand of protestors – were arrested including 146 women. The protest soon spread to other states where people stood at the bus stands, railway stations and government offices and shouted slogans and courted arrest. Within the first three months as many as 80,000 people were arrested.
On 15th August 1976, Manibehn Patel, daughter of Vallabhai Patel started a march to the Dandi beach along Gandhi’s route shouting slogans such as ‘Remove Emergency’ and ‘Release Political Prisoners’. The Marathi writer Durga Bhagawat was arrested. A group of Kannada writers circulated poems satirizing the Emergency. Other writers refused to put pen on paper such as Annada Shankar Ray. Cartoonist K. Shankar Pillai closed his magazine. Hindi writer Phanishwar Nath Renu returned his Padma Shree and Kannada writer Shivarama Karanth returned his Padma Bhushan.
An underground movement was carried out by George Fernandez who disguised himself and travelled from town to town organizing resistance against the Emergency. Acharya J.B. Kripalini was one of its fiercest opponents. Once the emergency was lifted, Congress faced the consequences of the same combined with the wrath of the general public. Writers wrote books and films were made about Emergency Salman Rushdie’s ‘Midnight Children’, V.S. Naipaul’s ‘ India: A wounded Country’ are some of the many books. Films like ‘Kissa Kursi Ka’ was a bold mockery of the dark phase. ‘Nasbandi’ and ‘Aandhi’ were some other films that played out the condition of the nation.
(a) Why did China attack India in 1962 ? 
(b) What were the consequences of the Indo-china war ? 
(a) With the independence of the Republic of India and the formation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the year 1949, one of the policies for the Indian Government was that of maintaining cordial relations with China. However, the border disputes between the two countries is one of the main factors leading to the war. India shares a border of 3488 km with China which can be divided into the following sectors :
- Western Sector : This refers to the border shared by Jammu and Kashmir, Xinjiang and Tibet.
- Central Sector : This refers to the border shared by Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand with Tibet.
- Eastern Sector : This is the sector where the Indian Sovereignty is challenged by China over an area of 90,000 sq km.
This area falls mostly in Arunachal Pradesh, Bum La, Lo La, Asaphi La and Tawang which inciden-tally happens to be the most sensitive area.
China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus, removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the Government of India did not oppose this openly. But as more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian Government grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, Dalai Lama, sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959. China alleged that the Government of India was allowing Anti¬China activities to take place from within India.
The main dispute was about the western and the eastern end of the long border. China claimed two areas within the Indian territory. Aksai-Chin area in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir and much of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in what was then called NEFA (North Eastern Frontier Agency). Between 1957 and 1959, the Chinese occupied the Aksai-Chin area and built a strategic road there. Despite a very long . correspondence and discussion among top leaders, these differences could not be resolved. Several small border skirmishes between the armies of the two countries took place.
In July 1954, Nehru wrote a memo directing a revision in the maps of India to show definite boundaries on all frontiers, however, Chinese maps showed some 120,000 square kilometres of Indian territory as Chinese. On being questioned, Zhou Enlai, the first Premier of People’s Republic of China, responded that there were errors in the maps.
Top People’s Republic of China leader, Mao Zedong felt humiliated by the reception Dalai Lama obtained in India when he fled there in March 1959. Tensions increased between the two nations when Mao stated that the Lhasa rebellion in Tibet was caused by Indians.
China’s perception of India as a threat to its rule of Tibet became one of the most prominent reasons for the Sino-Indian War. Various conflicts and military incidents between India and China flared up throughout the summer of 1962. On July 10,1962, around 350 Chinese troops surrounded an Indian post at Chushul and used loudspeakers to convince the Gurkhas that they should not be fighting for India.
In October 1959, India realized that it was not ready for war after a clash between the two armies at Kongka Pass in which 9 Indian policemen were killed; the country assumed responsibility for the border and pulled back patrols from disputed areas. On October 20, 1962, China’s People’s Liberation Army invaded India in Ladakh, and in the east across the McMahon Line in the North-East Frontier Agency.
The Border War and the ceasefire brought many changes and many implications to both India and the world. The political and military climate in southern Asia was dramatically changed in the last three months of 1962. India recognized many of the weaknesses in her Army and many lessons are still relevant today that emerged from the 1962 Border War.
India was decisively defeated in the Border War. But in many ways, India gained benefits from the 1962 conflict. The war united the country as never before. The Communist Party in India lost what little strength it had.
India did get 32,000 square miles of disputed territory. The new Indian republic had avoided international alignments by asking for during the war, India demonstrated her willingness to accept military aid from several sectors. Finally, India recognized the serious weaknesses in her Army. She would more than double her military manpower in the next two years and she would work hard to resolve the military’s training and logistic problems. India’s efforts to improve her military posture significantly enhanced her army’s capabilities and preparedness.
The War would also had significant impact on India’s relationship with Pakistan (which then bordered India on two sides, east and west). Seeing that India was militarily weak after the Border War, Pakistan felt that she was in a favourable position to resolve lingering border disputes in Kashmir. China was friendly towards Pakistan, and Pakistani leaders believed that China might support them in a dispute with India. When India reorganized and built up her Army, Pakistan became quite alarmed. In 1965, India and Pakistan would fight a border war in Kashmir.
The Sino-Indian conflict affected the opposition as well. This and the growing rift between China and the Soviet Union created irreconcilable differences within the Communist Party of India (CPI). The pro- USSR faction remained within the CPI and moved towards closer ties with the Congress. The other faction was for sometime closer to China and was against any ties with the Congress. The party split in 1964 and the leaders of the latter faction formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI- M). In the wake of the China war, many leaders of what became CPI (M) were arrested for being pro-China.
The war with China alerted the Indian leadership to the volatile situation in the Northeast region. Apart from being isolated and extremely underdeveloped, this region also presented India with the challenge of national integration and political unity. The process of its reorganization began soon after the China war. Nagaland was granted statehood; Manipur and Tripura, though Union Territories, were given the right to elect their own legislative assemblies.
(a) Briefly discuss the reasons for Assam’s demand for greater autonomy for the state. 
(b) How did the Center respond to Assam’s agitation for more autonomy. 
(a) Reasons for Assam’s agitation for greater autonomy for the state:
- The North East was aggrieved due to unfair . treatment by the centre, e.g. evident in neglectof industries / lack of economic enterprises and / even in the allocation of funds.
- It was deprived of its revenue from crude oil, tea and plywood./Assam’s revenue was pumped out of the state.
- Marwaris and Bengalis were controlling Assam’s economy.
- Labour forces were also largely non- Assamese, contributing to unemployment among Assamese youth.
- There was demand for better connectivity between North East and the rest of India e.g. Bridges over Brahmaputra/ railway upgradation / better road links.
- Even before independence, there had been a large scale migration from Bihar and Bengal into Assam.
- From 1971 onward, refugees poured in from Bangladesh (East Pakistan).
- Most returned back after the creation of Bangladesh but almost a lakh stayed behind.
- Peasant influx continued in search of land, triggering fear of land-loss among Assamese peasants.
- Demographic changes had generated cultural, linguistic and political insecurity.
- To face the challenge of illegal migration from Bangladesh, in 1979 All Assam Students Union (AASU) and Assam Gana Sangram Parishad (Assamese Peoples Struggle) were organised.
- In 1983, election to State’s Legislature Assembly was organised.
- It was marked by large scale violence.
- 98% of eligible Assamese voters had boycotted.
- Congress, however, formed the government.
- By- elections showed an increase in the number of voters.
- Identification of non Assamese by the Central Government demanded by the people.
(b) Demands for autonomy were raised when Non– Assamese populace felt that Assamese language was being forcibly imposed on them by the State Government. Leaders of the major tribal communities wanted to secede from Assam. To put up a united front, they set up Eastern India Tribal Union, which later transformed into All Party Hill Leaders Conference in the year 1960. They demanded that a tribal state be separated from Assam.
As a result, massive movement began taking shape to demand autonomy for the State. Consequently, riots broke out in the region. To contain these uneventful series of incidents taking place throughout the State, the Centre acted swiftly and took the following decisions:
- It created Mizoram, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh out of Assam.
- Tripura and Manipur were’ upgraded into states by the Centre.
- Re organisation of the region was completed by 1972.
By taking the above mentioned measures, Center Government indeed fulfilled the demand for autonomy to a certain extent, yet the major tribal communities went into revolt. They started organizing mass movements and mobilizing public opinion. This is the time when the evil of insurgency started to spread its hood in the region. After creating a number of States from Assam, the Government did not deem it feasible to create more States. They instead went ahead with creating autonomous Councils for these groups/communities. To fulfill the aspirations of other tribal communities like Bodos, Karbis and Dimasas; the latter two were granted autonomy under District Councils and the Bodos were granted autonomous Council.
Answer any two questions.
ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
(a) Discuss the significant changes in Mussolini’s foreign policy after 1935, till the outbreak of the Second World War. 
(b) Why did Britain and France follow a policy of appeasement towards Germany and Italy ? 
(a) Weakness of armed forces : Britain had many economic problems. Due to the effects of the great depression Military costs were reduced. Their army was weak and didn’t have enough Arms. Due to Germany’s strong army Britain and France needed to avoid war. The policy of appeasement seemed the best way to avoid war. At least Hitler was standing up to Communism. Britain was not only worried about Hitler, Communism was a bigger threat. People were more afraid of communism than the nazis being in power. Due to that people thought Hitler being in power was better than communism. They signed the appeasement to avoid communism.
(b) In the late 1930’s Britain, under Neville Chamberlain, and her ally France adopted a policy of appeasement. This meant that they wanted to keep the peace, and avoid entering a war at any cost, even if it meant making concessions towards potential aggressors, particularly Germany ruled by the dictator Adolf Hitler. Britain and France adopted and pursued this policy for a variety of reasons, though it was eventually abandoned in September 1939.
They believed that if they pursued appeasement and didn’t go to war with Germany then Germany would provide defense against the spread of communism. In conclusion, Britain and France pursued a policy of appeasement in the late 1930’s for a variety of reasons. Public opinion was very much against war, as the horror of the first one was still in living memory. Britain and France could not afford to fight a war; they were more concerned with the social situation in their own countries, and with protecting their empires.
(a) Give a critical account of the main features of the Great Leap Forward Policy adopted by Mao Tse Tung. 
(b) What was the significance of the Great Leap ? 
(a) The Great Leap Forward was an effort made by the Communist Party of China (CPC) under the leadership of Mao Zedong (also known as Mao Tse-tung) to transform China into a society capable of competing with other industrialized nations, within a short, five-year time period. In January 1958, the Great Leap Forward, the second Five-Year Plan, was launched, and between 1958 and 1960, millions of Chinese citizens were moved to communes to work on farms or in manufacturing. Private farming was prohibited.
The Great Leap Forward, intended to be a five-year effort, was halted in 1960 after three brutal years. The initiative is said to have cost an estimated 20 to 48 million lives as a result of catastrophic economic policy, compounded by adverse weather conditions including a flood that killed 2 million people and the subsequent crop failures that led to starvation. In addition to the fatalities, the Great Leap Forward had negative environmental impacts as communes were encouraged to set up “backyard” production plants for needed supplies such as steel, timber and cement. In 1960, an extensive drought further added to the country’s troubles. Mao Zedong was forced to resign from his position as Head of the State, although he was able to remain in a powerful party position.
(b) The Great Leap Forward of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party-of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1961. The campaign was led by Mao Tsetung and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization. However, it is widely considered to have caused the Great Chinese Famine.
The Great Leap Forward proved to be only a sign of things to come under the rule of Mao Zedong. Chinese society, on every level, was turned upside down as a result of the policies of the GLF. With the notable exception of the Soviet Union under Stalin, during no other time period was such an effort made to mobilize such a large number of people and so quickly. As a testament to the power of the Chinese Communist Party, they were able to take an entire population (some 600 million people) and put them to work towards the common goals that were believed to be for the greater good. This fact alone is quite remarkable. Of course, the negative side of these changes is even more astounding.
During the Great Leap Forward, it is estimated that over 24 million Chinese died as a result of starvation due to the policies of the CCP. The death toll incurred during this short time period of only 2 years, far exceeds the 15 million who died in the bloodiest modem war, World War II. Another factor that makes this atrocity as amazing as it is the fact that it was occurring right in front of the government’s face, yet they were unable or unwilling to do anything about it. Even more important for today’s society, one must recognize that this occurred only 43 yeafs ago. Historically, perhaps the most important aspect of the Great Leap Forward is that it served as a .
key pre-cursor of the Cultural Revolution that was to occur just 6 years after the Great Leap was brought to an end. Despite having lost some of the faith of the Chinese people as a result of his policy making failures during the Great Leap and previous to it (the 100 Flowers Campaign), Mao Zedong did not allow these setbacks to deter him from fulfilling his vision of Chinese Socialism. The Great Leap had proven that the Chinese people could easily be manipulated to the CCP’s wishes, whether it was out of voluntary compliance or outright fear. It was with this understanding in mind that he would once again seek to alter China’s political and social structure to his liking during the Cultural Revolution of 1966-1976, once again only to create horrendous consequences for the Chinese people.
(a) Discuss the main features of Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies of Glasnost and Perestroika. 
(b) Briefly discuss the events that led to the end of Commission in East Germany. 
(a) When Mikhail S. Gorbachev (1931) became general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in March 1985, he launched his nation on a dramatic new course. His dual program of “Perestroika” (“Restructuring”) and “Glasnost” (“Openness”) introduced profound changes in economic practice, internal affairs and international relations. Perestroika, his restmcturing concept, started with an overhaul of the top members of the Communist Party. It also focused on economic issues, replacing the Centralized Government planning that had been a hallmark of the Soviet system with a greater reliance on market forces. The accompanying concept of Glasnost sought to ease the strict social controls imposed by the Government. Gorbachev gave greater freedom to the media and religious groups and allowed citizens to express divergent views. By 1988, Gorbachev had expanded his reforms to include democratization, moving the USSR towards an elected form of Government.
(b)The fall of Berlin wall was just a tipping point in the disintegration of USSR. It marked an important point in history with some scholars declaring it as end of communism. Following events are the precursor to the fall of Berlin wall or end of communism in East Germany :
Sudden change in structure of economy proposed by Gorbachev, which created a shock to existing structure and notwithstanding change, it led to the eventual collapse of communist economies.
Gorbachev’s policy of freedom of expression: This led to discontent being expressed freely, finally leading to a strong protest against communist economy. Example- A group called New Forum was formed in East Germany,which pressed for reforms in East Germany.
Gorbachev’s policy of more power to states: This led to states like Hungary opening its borders to its western neighbours eventually leading to east Germans flocking in numbers to other western countries in search of jobs and livelihood.
Above events combined led to the eventual fall of Berlin wall; when group of 5,00,000 protestors gathered and marched towards Berlin wall leading to its fall. Consequences of such fall has been phenomenal. East Germany having cheap labour and non-competitive industries lead its citizens to move in other economies in search of job and strengthening of industries in west Germany as they are more competitive. Moreover, generations which witnessed such fall continue to dominate the thinking and polity of Germany, in which more liberal western expresses multiculturalism whereas east Germans continue to be dominated by conservatives. But both Germany in regret of nazism that existed there, try to accommodate all cultures and peoples in its economy and society.
(a) Why was there a significant change in the US Government’s attitude towards racial discrimination with the appointment of the Truman Committee (1946) ? 
(b) Briefly evaluate Dr. Martin Luther King’s role in the Civil Rights Move-ments. 
(a) Harry Truman is a name usually associated with America’s Civil Rights movement. The main ‘points’ that happened after his presidency were Montgomery, Little Rock, Birmingham, the careers of Martin Luther King and Stokely Carmichael. However, some very important civil rights issues were covered ‘ in his presidency. In 1946, Truman did establish a civil rights committee whose task was to examine violence against African Americans within America itself. This committee was filled with known liberals who Truman knew would produce a report that would and should shock mainstream America. The report was issued in October 1947.
The report was called “To Secure These Rights”. It was highly critical of a nation that appeared to tolerate the way African Americans were treated at a time that the nation also claimed to be the world’s leading light of democracy and protecting the world against the evils of communism, which destroyed the individual rights of the people under the tyranny of Communist Governments. The report wanted the Federal Government to use its authority to end segregation in America and lynching to be made a federal offence. The poll tax abolished voting rights introduced for African Americans which guaranteed their right to vote in elections free from threats of violence.
The FEPC made a permanent feature in America to end discrimination in inter-state traveling to end discrimination in the armed forces. The powerful Justice Department in Washington have a permanent Civil Rights section for Government financial backing for law suits to be taken by African Americans or others in favor of civil rights; when heard in a federal court for the creation of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.
During less than 13 years of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s leadership of the modem American Civil Rights Movement, from December, 1955 until April 4, 1968, African Americans achieved more genuine progress towards racial equality in America than the previous 350 years had produced. Dr. King is widely regarded as America’s pre-eminent advocate of non-violence and one of the greatest nonviolent leaders in world history.
Drawing inspiration from both, his Christian faith and the peaceful teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. King led a non-violent movement in the late 1950’s and 60’s to achieve legal equality for African-Americans in the United States.
His contributions are manifold :
In 1955, he was recruited to serve as spokesman for the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which was a campaign by the African- American population of Montgomery, Alabama to force integration of the city’s bus lines. After 381 days of nearly universal participation by citizens of the black community, many of them had to walk miles to work each day. As a result, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in transportation was unconstitutional.
In 1957, Dr. King was elected as the Conference (SCLC), an organization designed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement.
In 1963, he led a coalition of numerous civil rights groups in a non-violent campaign aimed at Birmingham, Alabama, which at the time was described as the “most segregated city in America.” It was during this campaign that Dr. King drafted the “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” the manifesto of Dr. King’s philosophy and tactics, which is a required- reading material in universities worldwide.
Later in 1963, Dr. King was one of the driving forces behind the March for Jobs and Freedom, more commonly known as the “March on Washington,” which drew over a quarter-million people to the national mall. It was at this March that Dr. King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech, which cemented his status as a social change leader and helped inspire the nation to act on civil rights. Dr. King was later named as Time magazine’s “Man of the Year”.
Also in 1964, partly due to the March on Washington, Congress passed the landmark Civil Rights Act, essentially eliminating legalized racial segregation in the United States. The legislation made it illegal to discriminate against blacks or other minorities in hiring, public accommodations, education or transportation areas which at the time were still very segregated in many places.
The next year, 1965, Congress went on to pass the Voting Rights Act, which was an equally-important set of laws that eliminated the remaining barriers to voting for African- Americans, who in some locales had been almost completely disenfranchised. This legislation resulted directly from the Selma to Montgomery, AL March for Voting Rights lead by Dr. King.
Between 1965 and 1968, Dr. King shifted his focus towards economic justice- which he highlighted by leading several campaigns in Chicago, Illinois – and international peace – which he championed by speaking out strongly against the Vietnam War.
Discuss the causes and consequences of the Suez War of 1956. 
Causes of the war :
Vital British interest : The Suez Canal provided Britain with a shorter sea route to its empire and, as the 20th century dawned and oil grew in importance, it provided a short sea route to the oilfields of the Persian Gulf. Britain was, therefore, committed to protect the canal.
The crisis builds : The Suez Crisis of 1956 has its roots in the post-war upsurge of nationalism in Egypt. In 1951, Nahas Pasha, leader of the recently-elected nationalist Wafd party revoked the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. British threats to occupy Cairo prompted King Farouk of Egypt to dismiss Nahas Pasha, but in July 1952 Farouk was overthrown in a military coup and General Mohammed Neguib seized power in 1954, Colonel Gamel Abdul Nasser replaced General Neguib. He had three goals: to make Egypt independent by ending British occupation; to build up Egyptian forces for a successful attack on Israel; to improve Egypt’s economy by constructing a high dam at Aswan to irrigate the Nile valley.
Appeasement fears : In February 1955, Anglo-Egyptian affairs were strained once more by Eden’s decision to deprive Nasser of promised British arms. In April, Eden succeeded Winston Churchill as the Prime Minister.
Treaties and collusion : The end of the Second World War in 1945 had brought a period of rapid change. The creation of the state of Israel in 1948 was followed by the first Arab-Israeli War, and a renewed upsurge of Arab nationalism made the Middle-east a volatile region. The United States had emerged from World War II as a global super power and, as a former colony itself it was committed to overseeing the decolonization of the globe.
Military action : On 29 October 1956, the Israeli attack was spearheaded by an airborne drop to seize control of the Mitla Pass. On 5 November, some three months and 10 days after Nasser had nationalized the canal, the Anglo-French assault on Suez was launched. It was preceded by an aerial bombardment, which grounded and destroyed the Egyptian Air Force. At midnight on 6 November, a cease-fire was called on the insistence of UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold. The Anglo-French forces had reached El Cap, just south of Port Said, but were not yet in control of the entire canal when they were stopped. Militarily, the operation was well on its way to being a great success.
Britain, France and Israel to withdraw their troops from Egypt. In Britain too there had been widespread outrage. A United Nations peacekeeping force was sent in to supervise the ceasefire and to restore order. The Suez Canal was cleared and reopened, but Britain in particular found its standing with the US weakened and its influence ‘east of Suez’ diminished by the adventure.
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