ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved for practice. Step by step Solutions with Questions of Part-1 and 2 (Section-A and B). By the practice of History 2016 Class-12 Solved Previous Year Question Paper you can get the idea of solving.
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ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
-: Select Your Topics :-
Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A, two
- questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Part-I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions
ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
Question 1. 
(i) Name the leader of the ‘Indian National Congress who popularized the vision of a socialist India.
(ii) Why did the Congress ministries resign in 1939 ?
(iii) What was the significance of the Lahore Session of the Muslim League (1940) ?
(iv) Name any two states whose union with India involved armed intervention by the Indian army.
(v) Name two major political parties that played an important role during the General Elections of 1967.
(vi) Which state was formed in 1953, on the basis of linguistic identity ?
(vii) Name the leaders of India and Pakistan between whom the Tashkent Agreement was signed (1966).
(viii) Why did Dalai Lama seek refuge in India ?
(ix) State any two major observations made by the Committee, on the Status of Women in India, Towards Equality Report (1974).
(x) What was the primary demand of the All Assam Students’Union ?
(xi) State one important example of Anglo- French appeasement of Hitler (1938) that made war inevitable.
(xii) What was the significance of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour ?
(xiii) What was the primary objective behind Mao Tse Tung’s “Hundred Flowers Campaign” ?
(xiv) Name the nationalist leader under whose leadership Ghana became independent.
(xv) Give one example to show that the Super Powers wanted to reduce East-West tension after the Cuban Missile Crisis.
(xvi) What is the full form of CIS ?
(xvii) Name the most outstanding leader of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa.
(xviii) Name the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW).
(xix) Why did Nasser nationalise the Suez Canal ?
(xx) Name the Agreement signed between the PLO and Israel (1993) that indicated a change in their respective attitudes.
(i) Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) was the foremost leader of the Indian National Congress who popularised the vision of a socialist India.
(ii) On 3rd September, 1939, Lord Linlithgow declared India to be at war with Germany. The Indian National Congress objected strongly and alleged that the Viceroy had involved India in the World War II without consulting the Central Legislature and the provincial governments. They were the dominant party and had formed the government in eight of the eleven provinces. The Congress working committee passed a resolution and demanded an immediate transfer of power in return for cooperation of the war efforts. Lord Linlithgow did not respond satisfactorily to this. Therefore, the Congress, on October 22nd, 1939 asked the Congress Ministries to resign.
(iii) On 23rd March, 1940 at the Lahore Session, the Muslim League adopted Jinnah’s two nation theory and passed the historic Pakistan Resolution which demanded the division of India and the establishment of an independent, sovereign Muslim State. This ultimately led to the division of the country in 1947.
(iv) Kashmir; Junagarh; Hyderabad; (any two)
(v) Indian National Congress and the Swatantra Party.
(vi) Andhra Pradesh.
(vii) Tashkent Agreement, (January 10, 1966) accord signed by India’s Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri (who died the next day) and Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan, ending the 17-day war between Pakistan and India of August-September 1965. A cease-fire had been secured by the United Nations Security Council on September 22,1965.
(viii) On March 10,1959, Dalai Lama received an invitation from a Chinese army officer to attend a drama festival. Though the invitation looked like a simple one, the conditions applied by the Chinese made everyone understand that it was a Chinese play to take him into custody as one of the condition was that the personal security staff of Dalai Lama would not be allowed to carry any weapon. Thousands of Tibetans gathered in front of the Narbulinka palace and decided that Dalai Lama should escape from Lhasa. Dressed like, a common army man, he left Lhasa and came down to India.
1. It observed that more than a hundred million women were “missing” (in the sense that their potential existence had been eliminated either through sex selective abortion, infanticide or inadequate nutrition during infancy).
2. There are discriminatory social-cultural practices, political and economic processes which adversely affect the women in India.
(xi) One important example was the Munich Conference of 1938, when the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia was handed over to Germany. Neither the Czechs nor the Russians were invited to the conference. The Czechs were told that if they resisted they would receive no help from Britain or France.
(xii) The US Naval Base at Pearl Harbour, Hawaii was attacked by the Japanese on the morning of December 7, 1941. The Japanese had planned and executed the surprise attack in order to dishearten the American people and kept the United States out of World War II. Instead the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour riled the emotions of the American people and spurred their entry into the war. Until then, USA had remained neutral though they provided Britain with massive financial aid under the Lend Lease Act of April 1941. This brought USA into war, and transformed it in a global conflict.
(xiii) In China, industrialization had produced a class of technicians and engineers who were critical of the party cadres. The cadres in turn thought these experts would undermine their authority. Therefore, Mao Tse Tung called for open dialogue and discussion between the cadres and the experts which would improve their mutual relationship. He said, “Let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend.”
(xiv) Kwame Nkrumah ruled Ghana from its independence in 1957 to 1966 when the army removed him.
(xv) In July 1963 the USSR, the USA and Britain signed a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty agreeing to carry out nuclear tests only underground to avoid polluting the atmosphere.
(xvi) Commonwealth of Independent States.
(xvii) Nelson Mandela
xviii) Betty Friedan, gender activist and writer.
(xix) The Americans canceled a promised grant of 46 million dollars for building the Aswan Dam. Nasser retaliated by nationalizing the Suez Canal intending to use the income from it to finance the Dam.
(xx) It was the Oslo Accords which was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It was the first face-to-face agreement between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
Part—II (60 Marks)
ISC History 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved
Answer five questions in all, choosing two questions from Section A, two questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
(a) What were the main proposals of the Cabinet Mission Plan ?  (b) What led . to the observance of Direct Action Day by the Muslim League, on August 16, 1946 ?  Answer 2:
(a) Main Provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan : The Cabinet Mission Proposal two-tiered federal plan which was expected to maintain national unity while conceding the largest measure of regional autonomy :
(i) There was to be a federation of the provinces and the States, with the federal central controlling only defence, foreign affairs and communications.
(ii) At the same time, individual provinces
could form regional unions to which they could surrender by mutual agreement some of their powers. ,
(iii) There would be three groups of provinces :
- Group ‘A’ was to include Madras, Bombay, U.P., Bihar, Central Province and Orissa,
- Group ‘B’ was to comprise Punjab, Sindh, N.W.F.P. and British Baluchistan (Muslim majority in most of the areas),
- Group ‘C’ was to include Bengal and Assam.
These groups would draft their own constitutions in consultation with their respective provinces included in each group.
(iv) A Constituent Assembly consisting of 389 members-292 from provinces, 4 from territories governed by Chief Commissioners and 93 from Indian
Princely States would draft the Constitution of India.
(v) An interim government at the Central consisting of representatives of all the communities, provinces would be installed on the basis of parity between the representatives of the Hindus and Muslims.
(b) Observance of Direct Action Day The elections to the Constituent Assembly under the Cabinet Mission Plan were held in My 1946, seat of the Congress 212 out of 298, Muslim League won 73 seats. The League apprehensive of the overwhelming strength of the Congress demanded appointment of two different constituent assemblies. On 27th July, 1946, Jinnah addressing the All India Muslim League attached the cabinet Mission Plan in general and Lord Wavell in particular and also charged him for playing in the hands of the Congress.
Muslim League withdraw its early acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan and announced the programme of Direct Action day. The working committee of the Muslim League met on 30th July and fixed 16th August as the Direct Action Day throughout the country. It would be observed all over India by holding meetings, taking out processions and organizing big rallies.
However, on that day the worst holocaust took place at Calcutta. During the four days that followed Muslims and Hindus indiscriminately murdered each other. Women and children were killed in broad daylight. Arson, rape, murder and pillage were rampant. More than 4,000 people lost their lives and 100,000 residents were left homeless in Calcutta. This violence sparked off further religious riots in the surrounding regions of Noakhali, Bihar, United Provinces (modern Uttar Pradesh), Punjab, and the North Western Frontier . Province. These events sowed the seeds for the eventual Partition of India.
The first General Election in India (1952) was a landmark event in the history of independent India. Discuss.  Answer 3:
Independent India’s first polls under its brand new Constitution were spread over five months, between October 1951 and February 1952.
After India became independent on August 15, 1947, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru formed the first union cabinet with 15 members picked from a wide range of communities and some known detractors. Just before the first election, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee (industries minister under Nehru) broke away to set up the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, representing the Hindu right wing. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar formed the Scheduled Caste Federation, later the Republican Party of India. Another high- profile Congress leader, J.B. (Acharya) Kriplani, founded the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party. Ram Manohar Lohia and J.P. Narayan, were the forces behind the Socialist Party.
The communists, having just abandoned an armed struggle in Telangana, too contested 49 seats. There was no tradition of a leader of the opposition then. The Congress secured four times as many votes as the closest opponent. The importance of this election was that democracy took a giant step forward. These elections were the biggest experiment in democracy anywhere in the world. The elections were held on the basis of universal adult franchise. All those who were twenty- one years of age or older had the right to vote. There were over 173 million voters, most of them poor, illiterate, and rural, and having had no experience of elections. The big question at the time was how would the people respond to this opportunity.
Many were doubtful that such an electorate would be able to exercise its right to vote in a politically mature and responsible manner. Some said that democratic elections were not suitable for a caste-ridden, multi-religious, illiterate and backward society like India’s and that only a benevolent dictatorship would be effective politically in such a society. The coming elections were described by some as ‘a leap in the dark’ and by others as ‘fantastic’ and as ‘an act of faith.
India’s electoral system was developed according to the directives of the Constitution. The Constitution made a provision for an Election Commission. It was to be headed by a Chief Election Commissioner, to conduct elections. It was to be independent of the executive or the parliament or the party in power.
There was a house-to-house survey to register the voters. With over 70 percent of the voters being illiterate, the candidates were to be identified by symbols, assigned to each major party and independent candidates, painted on the ballot-boxes (this was later changed to symbols on the ballot papers). The voters were to place the ballot papers in the box assigned to a particular candidate, and the ballot was secret. Over 224,000 polling booths, one for almost every 1000 voters, were constructed and equipped with over 21/2 million steel ballot-boxes, one box for every candidate. Nearly 620,000,000 ballot papers were printed. About a million officials supervised the conduct of the polls. Of the many candidates, whoever got the largest number of votes would be elected. It was not necessary for the winning candidate to have a majority.
In all, candidates of over fourteen national and sixty-three regional or local parties and a large number of independents contested 489 seats for the Lok Sabha and 3,283 seats for the state assemblies. Of these, 98 seats for the former and 669 for the latter were reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Nearly 17,500 candidates in all stood for the seats to the Lok Sabha and the state legislatures. Despite illiteracy and poverty the electorate in India has developed and become really mature as we can see today.
(a) What steps did the Congress Government take after the imposition of Emergency by Indira Gandhi in 1975 ?  (b) What was the immediate impact of this Emergency on the common people?  Answer 4:
(a) At 6 a.m. on 26th June, 1975, members of the Union Cabinet were faced with the fact that an Emergency had been declared.
The first step the Congress Government took was to jail leaders and legislators of opposition ‘ parties, student activists, trade unionists or anyone with the slightest connection to the Jana Sangh, The Congress (O), The Socialists or other groups opposed to the Congress including Jayprakash Narayan, Morarji Desai and the Rajmatas of Gwalior and Jaipur.
Thousands were arrested under MISA- Maintenance of Internal Security Act. The Prime Minister said that there was a need for a ‘New Spirit of Discipline and Morale’. Government copywriters began to churn out slogans such as ‘Discipline Makes the Nation Great’. ‘Talk Less, Work More’, ‘Be Indian, Buy Indian’, “Efficiency is our Watchword”. The New Economic Programme was put through. The slogan was “Garibi Hatao”. The Prime Minister offered the ‘20 Point Programme for Economic Progress’ which promised a reduction in prices of essential commodities, speedy imple-mentation of land reforms, the abolition of indebtedness and of bonded labour, higher wages for workers and lower income taxes for the middle class.
A series of Constitutional Amendments were passed. The 38th Amendment passed on 22nd July, 1975 barred Judicial Review of the Emergency. The 39th Amendment stated that the election of the Prime Minister could not be challenged by the Supreme Court, but only by a body constituted by Parliament. The Supreme Court, too, supported the Government by ruling that detentions without trial were legal under the new dispensation. The 42nd Amendment gave unprecedented powers to the Parliament. It could now extend its own term. Laws passed by the Parliament were immune from judicial scrutiny and strengthened the powers of the Center over the State.
In January 1976, when the term of the DMK Government ended in Tamil Nadu, the Center ordered President’s Rule. The same was applied to Gujarat. This is how the Congress made itself supreme all over India.
Most importantly, freedom of the Press was curbed. A system of pre-censorship was put in place whereby editors had to submit for scrutiny and approval of any article that criticized the Government. There were guidelines as to what constituted and what did not constitute as news. Even jokes and cartoons tinged with satire were forbidden.
The Congress Government supported the programme of Sanjay Gandhi who formulated a 5-Point Programme to complement his mother’s 20-Point Programme. These dealt with family planning, afforestation, abolition of dowry, removal of illiteracy and slums. It was his forced sterilization programme and indiscriminate bull dozing of slums that finally led to the downfall of Indira Gandhi and the Congress Government.
(b) Initially the Emergency, which followed a strife filled decade was welcomed by the middle class. The crime rate came down, the trains ran on time, there was a sense of alertness and discipline. There was a good monsoon in 1975 ensuring that prices were low. The average Indians did not care for the freedom of the press and expression. They wanted economic progress and above all peace even at the cost of personal rights. The 20- Point Programme brought stabilization and growth of the economy.
The business community were specially elected. Even small hotel owners had been hounded by unions. Even J.R.D. Tata felt that things had gone too far with strikes, boycotts and demonstrations. Hardly anyone resigned or left their jobs in protest against the Emergency. Then Gandhi had called for non-cooperation, thousands of teachers, lawyers, judges, even ICS officers had resigned. But now only a handful resigned in protest. These include Fali Nariman who resigned as Additional Solicitor General, M.L. Dantewala, who refused to continue as an advisor to the Reserve Bank and Bagaram Tulpule, who resigned from his office in the Public Sector.