ISC Political Science 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved

ISC Political Science 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved for practice. Step by step Solutions with Questions of Part-1 and 2 (Section-A and B). By the practice of Political Science 2016 Class-12 Solved Previous Year Question Paper you can get the idea of solving.

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ISC Political Science 2016 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved


-: Select Your Topics :-

Part-1

Sections-A of Part-2

Section-B of Part-2


Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours

  • Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
  • Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A, two questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
  • The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].

Part-I (20 Marks)

Answer all questions

ISC Political Science 2016 Class-12 

Question 1.
Answer briefly each of the questions (i) to (x): [10 x 2]
(i) On what basis are the states classified as unitary and federal ?
(ii) Differentiate between an enacted constitution and an evolved constitution.
(iii) Explain briefly, the First-Past-the-Post system of election.
(iv) What are the powers enjoyed exclusively by the Rajya Sabha ?
(v) Why are the civil servants called politically neutral members of the executive ?
(vi) What is the composition of the Supreme Court of India and the Supreme Court of the United States of America ?
(vii) Which fundamental right enables a person to petition the courts for issuance of writs ?
(viii) Give any two differences between the cabinet systems of India and the United States of America.
(ix) Briefly explain the composition of the Gram Panchayat.
(x) Mention any two forms of political violence in India.
Answer 1:
(i) The classification of states is done on the basis of relations between the Center and State government. In case of Unitary government all powers are vested with the Central government. Whereas in case of the federal government, the power is divided between the Center and the State by a Constitution.

(ii) An Enacted Constitution is a man-made constitution. It is made, enacted and adopted by an assembly or council called a Constituent Assembly or Constitutional Council. It is duly passed after a thorough discussion over its objectives, principles and provisions. It is written in the form of a book or as a series of documents and in a systematic and formal manner. The Constitutions of India the USA, Japan, China are enacted constitutions.

An evolved constitution is one which is not made at any time by any assembly of persons or an institution. Evolved Constitutions is the product of historical evolution and of political needs and practical wisdom of the people. The Constitution of Great Britain presents a key example of an evolved constitution

(iii) The First-Past-The-Post system is the simplest form of majority system, using single member districts and candidate- centered voting. The voter is presented with the names of the nominated candidates and votes by choosing only one, of them. The winning candidate is simply the person who wins the most votes. E.g. India, and the United States.

(iv) Under Article 67, a resolution seeking the removal of the Vice-President can originate only in the Rajya Sabha. After the Rajya Sabha passes such a resolution by a majority of the members present of the House, it goes for approval of the Lok Sabha.

Any resolution seeking creation of one or more All-India Services, including All-India Judicial Services, if such is necessary in the national interest, can only be initiated in the Rajya Sabha. Only after the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution to this effect by a special majority, i.e., Two-thirds of the members present and voting, can the Parliament legislate on this. A resolution seeking legislation on any subject of the State List can only originate in the Rajya Sabha, if it thinks that such is necessary or in the national interest.

(v) The civil servants are called politically neutral members of the executive because they cannot join political parties and participate in political movements. They are not affected by the political changes which keep on coming in the political executive. Whichever party may come to power and make the government, the civil servants remain politically neutral and carry out their assigned departmental roles impartially and faithfully.

(vi) The Constitution of India provided for a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and not more than 25 judges who are appointed by the President of India with consultation of the Chief Justice of India. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and such number of Associate Justices as may be fixed by Congress. The number of Associate Justices is currently fixed at eight. Power to nominate the Justices is vested in the President of the United States and appointments are made with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(vii) Right to Constitutional Remedies enables a person petition the Supreme Court for issuance of writs.

(viii) India has a system of Parliamentary government while it is Presidential system in the USA. In case of a parliamentary system the Cabinet collectively decides the government’s direction, especially in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In countries with a presidential system, such as the United States, the Cabinet plays a primary role as an official advisory council to the head of government. In a parliamentary system, the president will almost always follow this advice, whereas in a presidential system, a president who is also head of government and political leader may depart from the Cabinet’s advice if he does not agree with it.

(ix) Gram Panchayat is the organization of elected panehas by the members of Gram Sabha of the village. It is a self-government organization. The number of members in a Gram Panchayat depends upon the population of the village which may vary from state to state .Generally, the number of elected panehas in a Gram Panchayat varies between seven and seventeen members. There is provision for reservation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Women candidates. The head of the Panchayat is known as ‘Sarpanch’.

(x) Two forms of political violence in India are genocide and war.


Part-II (60 Marks)

Section—A
Answer any three questions

Previous Year Question Papers for ISC Political Science 2016 of Class-12 Solved

Question 2.
(a) What is meant by a liberal democratic state ? Discuss any four features of such a state. [6] (b) Compare the federal systems of the United States of America and India. [6] Answer 2:
(a) A Liberal democratic state is based on the ideology of a representative democracy with liberal outlook that focuses special attention on minorities and weaker sections. This outlook can be seen in the Indian Constitution.
Features :

  • It is characterized by fair, free and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties,
  • Powers are separated into different branches of government,
  • Equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, and political freedom for all people.
  • Liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution, either formally written or unmodified, to delineate the powers of
  • government.

(b) In order to compare the federal form of government in India and US we need to discuss both the similarities and differences between the two countries which are as follows-
Similarities :

Written Constitution : Both US and India have a written constitution based on which the federal political structure has been set up and both federal governments are functioning. Both constitutions have provisions for amending the constitution to meet the growing social, political and economic needs and demands of their respective countries.

Bill of Rights and Fundamental Rights : The US constitution has ensured the fundamental rights of its citizens through ‘The Bill of Rights’. The Indian Constitution has guaranteed the fundamental rights of the people through articles 14 to 35 in Part III.

Supremacy of the Federal or Union Government : In both the countries the law enacted by the Federal or Union Government will have over-riding effect over the law enacted by the states on the same subject. Thus Federal or Union Government is supreme in the present federal structure.

Separation of Powers : Both US and Indian Constitutions have three basic divisions in their federal set up known as executive, legislature and judiciary. The executive governs the country, the legislature enacts laws and the judiciary administers justice. President of US is the chief executive head of US, whereas the Union cabinet headed by the Prime Minister is the real chief executive body in India. Both US and India have a bicameral legislature. US ‘ legislature has an upper and lower house known as the House of Senate and the House of Representatives respectively and the Indian Parliament has Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha as its Lower and Upper house respectively. Both US and India have a well organized judiciary,

having the Supreme Court or the Federal Court as the apex court and a number of other courts in various states to administer original and appellate jurisdictions.

Differences:
The Constitution of US is very rigid in comparison to Indian Constitution : The constitution of US is very brief and rigid running into only a few pages, whereas the constitution of India is very voluminous containing as many as 25 parts, 12 schedules and 448 Articles. Since the US constitution is very rigid, the provisions meant for amending the constitution are also very rigid and more formal. Therefore, it is easy to amend the Indian Constitution, since it involves four different types of procedures which are comparatively easy than the amending procedure of the US Constitution.

US has the Presidential Form of Government, India has the Parliamentary Form of Government: In the US, the President is the head of the state while In India, the President is only a nominal head. The Indian cabinet and the Prime Minister are collectively and directly responsible and answerable to the parliament and indirectly to the people, whereas, the US President has constitutional obligations and duties and of course answerable to the people.

Differences between the Legislatures of US and India : In India, the lower house or the Lok Sabha is more powerful and its members are directly elected by the people and the members of the Upper house or Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected every two years. The Lok Sabha members represent their constituencies on the basis of their population strength; In the US, the House of Representatives are elected on the basis of the population strength of a state, but irrespective of the size of the state or its population.

Question 3.
(a) Discuss briefly three kinds of Minority Representation. [6] (b) Explain what is meant by a bi-party system. Examine any four merits of this system. [6] Answer 3:
(a) Three kinds of Minority Representation are: Cumulative Vote System : Involves with member constituencies. A voter has as many votes as the number of seats. A voter has the right to the option of either giving his votes to all, to a few or even to concentrate all his votes just for one candidate. A well organised minority has an opportunity to get at least one of its representatives elected by cumulating all its votes in favor of its own candidate.

Limited Vote System : Involves multi-member constituencies : Voter has certain number of votes which is less than the number of seats to be filled. This system acts as a check on the monopolization of representation in a constituency by a single political body and helps minority to get at least one seat.

Communal Representation : This entails Separate electorate for separate communities. A second method is reservation of seats in joint electorate : the voter may cast votes for the candidates of communities other than their own. But in deciding the result, a member of community who gets the highest number of votes among candidates of that community will be elected.

(b) Bi-party system means there are only two major parties and the rest of the parties are less important.
Merits:
Stable Government : The Government is more stable in a bi-party system, because the party which has a majority in the legislature forms the Government and the other party acts as opposition.

Direct Election of the Government : In this system the Government is elected by the people directly. As the voters know the party in whose favor they are casting their votes. Thus, the people vote for the party whom they wish to form a Government.

It Ensures A Strong Government and Continuity of Policy : Because of the stability of the Government in a bi-party system, it is strong and it can pursue good policy continuously.

Responsibility for the Failure and Short-comings of the Government Easily Located in Their system : In a bi-party system, the Government is in the hands of one party, and thus it is responsible for the reputation of the government

Question 4.
(a) Discuss three disadvantages of a unicameral legislature. [6] (b) Explain why the United States Senate is considered to be the most powerful second chamber in the world. [6] Answer 4:
(a) Unicameral system of parliament is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary house. This system typically exists in small and homogeneous unitary states. Examples of countries that exercise unicameral system include the People’s Republic of China.

If there is only one house, then the house in course of time may become arrogant. It may act arbitrarily and become autocratic.

Modem states are complex societies. They require more laws of complex matters to be made. A single house cannot give adequate time for thorough discussion as to the making of those complex laws. A second chamber would reduce the burden of a single chamber considerably.

Unicameralism does not provide any opportunity for revision of bills. The single chamber may pass have and ill considered bills. It may be swayed away by emotion and passion.

(b) The U.S. Senate is considered to be the most powerful second chamber in the World for the following reasons.
It is the only legislative house which enjoys direct executive powers. It shares with the President the power of making top ranking appointments and through this privilege it controls the internal administration of the Federal government.

The Membership of the Senate is small but has a long tenure of 6 years. Thus the Senators are not worried about their election and can do full justice to the policy and programmes of the Party.

The Senate enjoys equal powers in legislative and financial spheres. In India, England etc., the upper house is given lesser authority than the Lower house in the spheres of legislation. But in the US both the Senate and the House of Representatives enjoy equal powers in case of ordinary and financial legislation.

Question 5.
(a) Explain three legislative powers of the President of the United States of America. [6] (b) we have made his position one of authority and dignity. The constitution wants to create neither a real executive nor a mere figurehead. ” (Jawaharlal Nehru) [6] Discuss the constitutional position of the Indian President in the tight of this statement.
Answer 5:
(a) The Legislative powers of the U.S. president are as follows :
The president can veto any bill passed by Congress and, unless two-thirds in each house vote to over-ride the veto, the bill does not become law.

When signing a bill the president can also issue a signing statement that expresses his opinion on the constitutionality of a bill’s provisions that intrude on executive power. He may even declare them unenforceable.

The president may propose a legislation, he or she believes is necessary. If Congress should adjourn without acting on those proposals, the president has the power to call it into special session.

(b) The President of India has been given wide and far-reaching powers which he enjoys both during normal and emergency times. But after the passing if the Constitution Forty-Second (1976) and Forty-Fourth (1978) Amendment Acts, the President of our Republic has become a Constitutional figurehead and nothing beyond that.

Today, President’s position is one of great authority and dignity, but at the same time strictly constitutional. Thus, the President is bound in every case to act on the advice of his Prime Minister and other Ministers who are responsible to the Lok Sabha and responsive to the public opinion. The powers really reside in the Ministry and the Parliament and not in the President as such. He has no discretion in our Parliamentary system of government.

The Supreme Court through various decisions has upheld the position that the President is a constitutional head and he is as much bound by the advice of his Ministers during emergency as during normal times. For example, the President can declare a proclamation of the National Emergency (Article 352) only after receiving a written communication of the decision of the Union Cabinet. If the President abuses his powers, he can be removed from office by a process of impeachment.

However the President is not a mere figure-head. Unlike the British Monarchy which is hereditary, the President of our Republic is an elected Head of the State. In our coalition politics, there are some grey areas where the President may still have to use his own judgment and wisdom. These are :

  • Appointment of the Prime Minister,
  • Dismissal of the Union Ministry,
  • Dissolution of the Lok Sabha, and,
  • Seeking information on all matters of administration and legislation from the Prime Minister etc.

Question 6.
(a) Critically evaluate the principles of Judicial Review, with reference to India. [6] (b) How is judicial independence ensured in the Constitution of the United States of America ? [6] Answer 6:
(a) Judicial Review refers to the power of the judiciary to interpret the constitution and to declare any such law or order of the legislature and executive null and void, if it finds them in conflict the Constitution of India :

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