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## ISC Psychology 2017 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper

Part-I

Section-A Part-II

Section-B Part-II

Maximum Marks: 70
Time allowed: Three hours

• Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
• Answer Question 1 from Part I and five questions from Part II,
• The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].

### Part – I (20 Marks)Answer all questions.

ISC Psychology 2017 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper

Question 1: [20]
Answer briefly all the questions (i) to (xx) :
(i) Define personality, according to Eysenck.
(ii) State the formula for calculating the IQ of an individual.
(iii) Give the full form of SCII.
(iv) What is meant by the term fixation according to Freud ?
(v) Briefly explain what is meant by gender identity.
(vi) What is obsessive compulsive disorder ?
(vii) Explain the term aptitude.
(viii) Define depression.
(ix) What is meant by automatic vigilance ?
(x) Explain the term object permanence.
(xi) What is burnout ?
(xii) Explain the term free association.
(xiii) What is meant by matching individuals to their jobs ?
(xiv) Who put forward the Structure of Intellect Model of intelligence ?
(xv) What is meant by disorganized attachment ?
(xvi) Briefly explain oral stage of psycho sexual development.
(xvii) What is meant by group test of intelligence ?
(xviii) Who are delinquents ?
(xix) What is meant by secondary cognitive appraisal ?
(xx) Explain the term development.
(i) According to Eysenck (1971), “Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organisation of a person’s character, temperament, intellect and physique, which determine his unique adjustment to the environment.”

(ii) $\mathrm{IQ}=\frac{\mathrm{M} \mathrm{A}}{\mathrm{CA}} \times 100$
where IQ = Intelligence Quotient
MA – Mental Age
CA – Chronological Age.

(iii) The full form of SCII is Strong Campbell Interest Inventory.

(iv) Fixation: Excessive investment of psychic energy in a particular stage of psycho- sexual development; this results in various types of psychological disorders.

(v) Gender identity is defined as personal conception of oneself male or female and is an important aspect of the developing self concept of coregender identity is usually formed by age three. It is the ability to label themselves appropriately and consistently.

(vi) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder defined by the occu-rrence of unwanted and intrusive obsessive thoughts or distressing images; usually accompanied by compulsive behaviors performed to neutralize the obsessive thoughts and images.

(viii) Depression is a mood disorder which is marked by the feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection, or display of loss of interest in pleasurable activities,

(ix) Automatic vigilance is the strong tendency to pay attention to undesirable or negative information.
Leon, Oden and Anderson (1973) in com-parative judgments of criminal offenses found that more serious crimes (rape, murder) has more extreme weight than less serious crime (forgery, fraud).

(x) Object Permanence is the understanding or realization of an infant that an object or person continues to exist even when out of sight. It develops between third and sixth sub-stage of the sensori-motor stage. This development in many cultures can be seen in the game of peek-a-boo.

(xi) “Burnout” is a complete physical, emotional and mental or attitudinal exhaustion caused by excessive prolonged stress. It is a worn out state because of repeated to encounter with stress.

(xii) Free association is a technique of Psycho-dynamic psychotherapy in which an individual must speak-out whatever comes into his or her mind regardless of how personal, painful or seemingly irrelevant it may seem to the client. The purpose is to thoroughly to explore the contents of the pre-conscious mind.

(xiii) Through job analysis, job characteristics i.e. the components of each job are known. Then through application of psychological tests the characteristics of the person are traced. Then these two are thatched. This is known as matching individuals with jobs. If matching is hundred percent, then the person is best suited for the job.

(xiv) J. P. Guilford put forward the structure of Intellect model of Intelligence.

(xv) Babies with disorganized attachment often shows inconsistent contradictory behaviour. They greet their mothers bright when she returns after separation for sometime but they turn away or approach without looking at her. They seem confused and afraid. This is the least secure pattern and is most likely to occur in babies whose mothers are insensitive, intensive or abusive.

(xvi) Oral stage is the initial psychosexual stage during which the developing infant’s main concerns are with oral gratification. The oral phase in the normal infant has a direct bearing on the infants activities during the first 18 months of life. Freud said that through mouth the infant makes contact with the first object of libido, the mother’s breast. Oral needs are also satisfied by thumb-sucking, other objects like dolls, toys or blankets into the mouth. Freud believed that by the end of first year oral phase begins to shift towards anal region.

(xvii) Group tests of intelligence are test which can be administered to many individuals at the same time. It is not costly in terms of administration and time. No trained examiners are required to administer the test e.g.,

1. Army alpha test (group verbal test)
2. Army beta test
3. Raven’s Progressive matrices (Group Non-verbal test)

(xviii) Delinquents are adolescents who engage in violent and anti-social behavior and have ‘ a “rule-breaking” tendency. It is associated with various interacting risk factors like ineffective parenting, school failure, peer or neighborhood pressures, low social economic status. The children may get pay off for such anti-social behavior. However
most delinquent do not become adult criminals.

(xix) Secondary cognitive appraisal, as proposed by Lazarus, is the assessment of one’s coping abilities and resources that whether they are sufficient to meet the harm, threat or challenge of the event. When harm and threat is high and coping abilities are low, substantial stress is felt. When coping ability is high, stress may be minimal.

(xx) Development refers to a progressive series of changes in an orderly coherent pattern. Progress signifies that the changes are one- directional-that they lead forward rather than backward. Orderly and coherent suggests that there is a definite relationship between the changes taking place and those that proceeded or will flow with them.

### Part — II (50 Marks)

Section — A

ISC Psychology 2017 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper

Question 2:
(a) Describe the theory of Multiple Intelligence. [6] (b) Who are gifted children ? Give any six characteristics of gifted children. [4] Answer 2:
(a) Howard Gardner challenged the motion of general intelligence. He tried to give a broad base to the concept of intelligence and its measurement by providing a multiple frame. According to him, intelligence can be best described as an individuals multiple abilities, talents and multiple skills. His theory first appeared in the frames of mind (1983).

He proposed seven independent types of intelligence that grow and develop differently in different people. They are as follows.

Linguistic intelligence : It includes linguistic competence, talents and skills such as written or oral expression and understanding. It includes syntax, semantics and Pragmatics. It is visible in professionals like lecturer, writers, lyricists.

Logical mathematical intelligence : It is responsible for all types of abilities, talents and skills in areas related to logic and mathematics. The various components are inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, scientific logical problem solving. It is exhibited in professionals like mathematicians, physicians.

Spatial intelligence : It is responsible for abilities, talents and skills involving the representation and manipulation of spatial configuration and relationship. It is visible in professionals such as painters, architects and navigators.

Musical intelligence : It covers abilities, talents and skills pertaining to the field of music, like production of music through per-formance and composition various components are pitch, discrimination, sensitivity to rhythm, timbre. It is visible in professionals like musicians and composers.

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence : It is concerned with the abilities, talents and skills involved in using one’s body or its various parts to perform skillful and purposeful movements. It is visible in professionals like dancers, athletes and gymnasts.

Inter-personal intelligence : It consists of the abilities to understand other individuals and one’s relation to others. It includes the ability to act productively, based on understanding of others. It is needed mostly in social interactions in day-to-day life.

It is exhibited in professionals like psychotherapists, sales person and politicians. Intra-personal intelligence : It is the individual’s ability to know himself, providing an insight into the total behavior. It includes the knowledge and understanding of one’s cognitive strength and style, one’s range of emotions and feelings. It is demonstrated in yogis, saints.

Gardner’s theory provided a broad and comprehensive view of human abilities. However the last four types of intelligence have been subject of great controversy as to whether they should be categorized as separate types of intelligence.

(b) According to Marland report (1972), “the gifted are those who possess outstanding abilities or potential in the areas of general ‘ intellectual capacity, specific academic aptitude, creative or productive thinking, leadership ability, visual or performing arts and psycho-motor activity”.

Characteristics of gifted children are as follows:
Physical characteristics : Their developmental milestones are observed way earlier than average children. An appropriate correlation is found between height and weight.

Mental or intellectual characteristics : They have special ability of analysis and logic. They have a good ability to understand abstract ideas. They have original thinking.

Educational characteristics : They take interest in reading reference books, newspaper, journals. They obtain good marks with less efforts than normal. They are systematic in their study.

Personality characteristics : They have a well balanced temperament and a high ability of adjustment. They are goal oriented, self-confident and have good conduct.

Social characteristics : They have special ability of leadership, they are trustworthy, like to play with children of older age group than themselves, high moral thinking and empathy and more tolerance ability.

Negative characteristics : Negative characteristics include stubbomess, shyness, demanding, poor handwriting, tend to question laws, rules authorities, over active physically and mentally, absent-minded.

Question 3:     ISC Psychology 2017 Class-12
(a) Explain the measurement of personality through Rorschach Ink blot Test. [6] (b) Discuss the levels of consciousness put forward by Freud. [4] Answer 3:
(b) Freud divided human consciousness into three levels of awareness : The conscious, preconscious and unconscious. Each of these levels corresponds and overlaps with Freud’s ideas of the id, ego, and super ego. The conscious level consists of all the things we are aware of, including things we know about ourselves and our surroundings. The preconscious consists of things we could pay conscious attention to if we so desired, and is where many memories are stored for easy retrieval . Freud saw the preconscious as comprised thoughts that are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but that are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious.

The unconscious consists of things that are outside of conscious awareness, including many memories, thoughts, and urges of which we are not aware. Much of what is stored in the unconscious is thought to be unpleasant or conflicting for example; sexual impulses that are deemed unacceptable. While these elements are stored out of our awareness, they are nevertheless thought to influence our behavior.

Question 4:       ISC Psychology 2017 Class-12
(a) Describe the type theory of personality put forward by Hippocrates. [5] (b) Give an account of Thurstone’s theory of Primary Mental Abilities. [5] Answer 4:
(a) Type theories advocate that human potentialities can be classified into a few clearly defined types and each person can be described as belonging to a certain type.
Greek physician, Hippocrates gave a classification on the basis of dominant fluids. According to him, the human body consists of four types of humors or fluids — blood, yellow bile, phlegm (mucus) and black bile. The predominance of one of these four types of fluids in one’s body gives him unique temperamental characteristics leading to a particular type of personality classification is as follows-

Sanguine personality (Blood : Predominant fluid in the body): Light hearted, carefree, optimistic, easy-going, hopeful, accommo-dating, happy, responsive, sociable, talkative, lively, has leadership qualities.

Choleric personality (Yellow bile : Predo-minant fluid in the body) : Irritable, restless, aggressive, impulsive, excitable, active, angry but passionate, strong with active imaginatic , touchy, flexible.

Phlegmatic personality: (Phlegm/Mut c : Predominant fluid in the body): calm, tempered, controlled, reliable, slow/sluggish, indifferent, thoughtful, peaceful, passive, careful.

Melancholic personality (Black bile : Pre-dominant fluid in the body): Pessimistic, rigid, unsociable, bad-tempered, sad, deplorable, self-involved, dejected, anxious, moody, reserved.

(b) According to American psychologist L. L. Thurstone (1938), intelligence comprises of nine distinct primary mental abilities. According to him, there is no factor common to all intellectual activity. However there are a number of groups of mental abilities, each having its own primary factor.

The description of the factors is as follows :
Verbal factor : It is concerned with comprehension of verbal relations, words and ideas.

Spatial factor : It is involved in any task in which the subject manipulates an object imaginatively in space.

Numerical factor : It is concerned with the ability to do numerical calculations rapidly and accurately.

Memory factor : It involves the ability to memorize quickly.

Word-fluency factor: It is involved whenever the subject is asked to think of isolated words at a rapid rate.

Inductive reasoning factor : It is the ability to draw inferences or conclusions on the basis of specific inferences.

Deductive reasoning factor : It is the ability to make use of generalized results.

Perceptual factor : It is the ability to perceive objects accurately.

Problem solving factor : It is the ability to solve problems with independent efforts.

There stone assembled a battery of tests to measure these abilities. This Primary Mental Abilities test (PMA) is still widely used.

The weakest part of the group factor theory was that it discarded the concept of common factor.

Section – B

### Solved Previous Year Question Paper ISC Psychology 2017 Class-12

Question 5:
(a) Describe the concrete cognitive development during childhood. [5] (b) Discuss the motor milestones of development in infancy. [5] Answer 5:     ISC Psychology 2017 Class-12
(a) In Piaget’s theory, a stage of cognitive development occurring roughly between the ages of seven and eleven, is the stage of concrete operations. According to Piaget, a child’s mastery of conservation marks the beginning of this stage. Logical thought emerges in this stage. The key developments at this stage are as follows :

Conservation : Children at this stage under-stand that physical entities (weight, length, amounts) remain fixed so long as nothing is added or taken away from it, though it might appear different. Understanding of this nature’s constant is known as conservation. The various kinds of conservation are :

Conservation of substance: Two identical clay balls are presented. The subject admits that they have equal amounts of clay. If one ball is deformed into the shape of a “sausage”, the subject will still say that both contains equal amounts of clay at this stage.

Conservation of length : Two sticks are aligned in front of the subject and he admits their equality. Now if one of the sticks is moved to the right, and the subject is asked whether they are of the same length, the subject will admit that they are still of the same length.

Conservation of members : Two rows of clay balls are placed in one-to-one correspondence subject admits that both rows have equal number of balls. Now, one of the rows is elongated or contracted and subject is asked whether both the rows still have the same number of balls. They admit equality.

Conservation of liquids : Two beakers are filled to the same level with water. The subject sees that they are equal. Now, liquid of one container is poured into a tall tube. The subject is asked whether each contains the same amount. At this stage, They agree that each contains the same amount.

Conservation of area : In two identical cardboard’s same number of identical wooden blocks are placed in identical portions. Then the subject is asked whether each cardboard has the same amount of space remaining. The experimenter then scatters the blocks on one of the cardboard’s. The subject is asked the same question. In both the cases, the subject admits that same amount of space is left.

Reversibility : In this stage, children can solve the questions mentally. They do not need to measure or weigh objects. For example — In the famous Muller-Lyer illusion :

In the figure, in step 1, a child agrees that stick A and stick B are equal. In step 2, stick B appears longer than stick A. But children in the concrete stage are capable of mentally reversing the arrows shafts to its original configuration, would admit it to be the same as stick A.

Categorization : This includes abilities such as ‘seriation’, ‘transitive inference’ and ‘class inclusion’.

• Seriation : It refers to the ability to arrange items along a dimension such as weight (lightest to heaviest) or colour (lightest to darkest).
• Transitive inference : It refers to the ability to recognize a relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship between each of them and a third object.

For example : Amenda is shown three sticks — a yellow, red and green. She has been told that the yellow stick is longer than red one and the red one is longer than the green one, then without physically comparing the yellow with the green one, she can tell that the yellow stick is longer than the green one.

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