ISC Sociology 2017 Class-12 Previous Year Question Papers Solved

ISC Sociology 2017 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper Solved for practice. Step by step Solutions with Questions of Part-1 and Part-2. By the practice of Sociology 2017 Class-12 Solved Previous Year Question Paper you can get the idea of solving.

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ISC Sociology 2017 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper Solved

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Maximum Marks: 70
Time allowed: Three hours

  • Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
  • Answer Question 1 from Part I and five questions from Part II,
  • The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].

Part – I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions.

ISC Sociology 2017 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper Solved

Question 1:
Answer briefly each of the following questions : [10 x 2]
(i) Distinguish between polyandry and polygyny.
(ii) Define Gotra.
(iii) Explain the term superstition.
(iv) What is meant by barter exchange ?
(v) Differentiate between sex and gender.
(vi) What is meant by globalisation ?
(vii) What is the basic difference between religion and science ?
(viii) Define racism.
(ix) Name any two laws that have helped in the empowerment of women.
(x) What is meant by social change ?
Answer 1:
(i) Polyandry is the form of marriage in which a woman has two or more than two husbands at a time, whereas polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has two or more than two wives at the same time.

(ii) Gotra literally means ‘clan’. It refers to the people who are descendants of a common ancestor, the ancestor is generally taken to be a male.

(iii) Superstitions refers to belief in supernatural causality, without any direct link between the cause and effect relationship. It is contrary to natural science. For example- belief in witchcraft, omens, prophecies, etc.

(iv) The barter system of exchange refers to an economic system in which payment in exchange of goods or services is not made through money, but in kind. Barter system can work only when there is double coincidence of wants. For example- the zamindar paying the nai by giving him some wheat.

(v) Sex is a biological term that refers to male or female; while gender is a sociological term that refers to the man or woman and their associated roles in the society.


(vi) Globalization or globalization is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people, and the dissemination of knowledge.

(vii) The basic difference between religion and science is that religion asks one to surrender before the supernatural without any questioning, purely on faith. While science encourages questioning and tells its adherents not to accept anything on face value. Thus deep scepticism is a virtue in science while it is considered heresy in religion.

(viii) The term ‘racism’ is an ideology that promotes discriminative practices towards people based on their race or ethnicity. Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems.

(ix) Two laws that helped in empowerment of the women are:

  1. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
  2. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.

(x) The term social change is used to indicate the changes that take place in human interaction and human interrelation. Social change refers to observable difference in any social phenomena observed over a period of time. According to Gillin and Gillin, ‘Social changes are variations from the accepted models of life, whether due to alteration in geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies or brought about by diffusion or inventions within the group.’

Part – II (50 Marks)
Answer any five questions.

ISC Sociology 2017 Class-12 Previous Year Question Paper Solved 

Question 2:
(a) What is meant by kinship usages ? Discuss the kinship usage of avoidance, in detail. [5] (b) Define marriage. Discuss its functions in human life. [5] Answer 2:
(a) The term kinship usage means the rules governing the behavior with different kins. It provides guidelines for interaction among different persons in a social group. It defines proper and acceptable role relationships. Thus, it acts as regulator in social life. According to avoidance in kinship usage, two kins of opposite sex should remain away from each other, i.e., they should avoid each other.

They should avoid even seeing the face of each other. Thus, a father-in-law is supposed to avoid a daughter-in-law. Similarly, a mother-in-law avoids a son-in-law. In some societies, avoidance is also maintained between brothers and sisters. The purdah system of the Indian society illustrates the usage of avoidance. Radcliffe Brown and G.P. Murdock have given functionalist explanation for avoidance. According to them, the purpose of avoidance usage is to forestall further or even more serious trouble between the kins.

(b) Marriage is a social institution through which a man and a woman enters into a family life for the purpose of procreation and upbringing of the children. According to Horton and Hunt, ‘Marriage is an approved social pattern whereby two or more persons establish a family.’
The functions of marriage in human life are as follows :

  • Formation of the household.
  • Legitimate sexual association of the male and female.
  • Procreation of the offspring.
  • Upbringing and rearing of the children.
  • Transmission of culture from one gene-ration to another.
  • It is the basis of creating household as an economic unit.
  • It creates family as an educational unit for the infant.

Question 3:  (ISC Sociology 2017 Class-12)
(a) Discuss the meaning of family, with respect to matriarchal societies. [5] (b) ‘Family is a universal institution.’ In this context, discuss the reasons for its universal existence. [5] Answer 3:
(a) Family is a small social group consisting of father, mother and their children. According to Nimkoff, ‘Family is more or less a durable association of husband and wife with or without children, or a man or a woman alone, with children.’ In matriarchal society, the authority is vested with the mother or the eldest female of the family and the male serves the purpose of subordinate. Following are the features of the family in a matriarchal society :

  • The descent is reckoned through the mother and not the father. Hence, it is a matrilineal system.
  • Marriage relations are transient where the husband is just a casual visitor.
  • The children are brought up in the home of the wife’s relation, i.e., it is matrilocal.
  • The property is also transferred through the mother and is succeeded by daughters.
  • Post marriage (in some matrilineal societies), the bride and groom go to stay at the bride’s maternal uncle’s house.

(b) ‘Family is a universal institution.’ It is the foundation of society. It is present in every society and in every age. It forms the basic unit of social organisation and is hard to imagine how society could function without the family.
The reasons for universal existence of families are as follows :


  • It is the only unit which fulfills the basic needs of the procreation and upbringing of children.
  • It legitimises the sexual union between male and female.
  • It fulfills the basic human needs of acceptance and belongingness.
  • The family provide the individual with primary socialization, which helps the individual to become accepted into society.
  • It helps in transmission of culture from one generation to another.
  • It is the basic production and consumption unit.

Question 4:
(a) What is communalism ? How can the problem of communalism be controlled in India ? [5] (b) Explain Animism as a theory of religion. [5] Answer 4:
(a) Communalism refers to blind faith in religion and the act of using religion as an instrument for mobilizing people in the arena of politics. In a country like India with many religious faiths, some politicians have tried to use communalism for provoking people against other religious groups for fulfilling their own selfish motives. The issues related with communalism in India can be curbed by the following measures :

  • Abolition of communalist parties, so that religion and politics can be kept separate.
  • Imparting secular education in the schools and colleges.
  • Developing the attitude of tolerance towards other religions with the help of mass media. For example-advertisements like; ek chidiya anek chidiya.
  • Promoting inter-religious marriages, which would help in inter-mingling of people from different religions and sects.
  • Proper use of mass media should be done to spread tolerance and securalism.

(b) Animism refers to a belief in soul or ancestral spirits. It is a theory of religion propagated by E.B. Tylor. He believed that religion originated and was maintained on the beliefs of soul, ghosts, ancestral spirits and other things which were imagined and accepted without much real rationality in them. He named this as animism.

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