Metallurgy Dalal Simplified ICSE Chemistry Class-10 Solutions Chapter 6 . Solutions of Dr Dalal Simplified ICSE Chemistry by Dr Viraf and J Dalal for Class 10. Step by step Solutions of Metallurgy ICSE Chemistry by Dr Viraf and J Dalal Simplified Chemistry.

## Metallurgy Dalal Simplified ICSE Chemistry Class-10

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### Additional Questions Metallurgy Dalal Simplified ICSE

#### Question 1.

State how the physical and chemical property differences between metals and non-metals are related to their basic atomic structure.
Define a metal with particular emphasis on (i) ionization (ii) valency (iii) formation of oxides.
State the position [group] in the periodic table to which the following metals belong (i) Na – alkali metal (ii) Mg – alkaline earth metal (iii) Fe and Zn transition elements (iv) inner transition elements (metals) (v) Al – post transition element.
Atoms of Metallic elements, in general, have relatively larger atomic size. Hence, their valence electrons are held less tightly by the nucleus. As such, the valence electrons are mobile, leading to good electrical and thermal conductivity in case of metals. Further, with 1,2 or 3 valence electrons, metals can easily lose electrons to form cations. Thus, metal are electropositive in nature and are strong reducing agents.
On the other hand, non-metallic elements, in general, have relatively smaller atomic size. Hence their valence electrons are held tightly by the nucleus. As such their valence electrons are not mobile, thus making non-metals bad conductor of heat and electricity. Further, non-metals have 5, 6 or 7 valence electrons. As such, non-metals tend to gain electrons to form anions. Thus non-metals are electronegative in nature and strong oxidising agents.
Thus, we find that the physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals are related to their basic atomic structure.
Defination of Metals :

1. Atoms of metals with 1, 2 or 3 electrons in their valence shell can easily lose their valence electrons to form cations e.g.

1. As metals can easily lose electrons to form cations, metals are electropositive in nature.
2. Metals on reacting with non-metals form ionic or electrovalent compounds, e.g.
3. As metals tend to form cations, metals show a positive valency of 1,2 or 3.

Position of Metals in the periodic table :

1. Na – alkali metal – Group I (IA)
2. Mg – alkaline earth metal – Group 2 (IIA)
3. Fe and Zn transition elements – Group 9 (VIII), Group 12 (IIB)
4. Inner transition elements : zero group.
5. Al-post transition element: Group 13 (III A)

#### Question 2.

Metals occur in the free state and in the combined state, name two metals which occur in the free or native state. In the combined state metals occur in the form of compounds. Name two different metallic compounds in each case which occur as

1. halides
2. oxides
3. sulphides.

Gold and Platinum are the two metals that occur in the free or native state.
The metallic compounds which occur in :

1. Halides – Cryolite[Na3AlF6], Flurospar[CaF2], Rock Salt[NaCl]
2. Oxides – Bauxite[Al2O3.2H2O], Zincite[ZnO], Cuprite[Cu2O]
3. Sulphides – Iron Pyrite[FeS2], Zinc blende[ZnS], Gdlena[PbS]

#### Question 3.

Differentiate between

1. mineral & ore
2. matrix & flux.

Differentiate between mineral & ore
Mineral :

• The compounds of various metal found in nature associated with their earthly impurities are called minerals.

Ore :

• The naturally occurring minerals from which metals can be extracted profitably and conveniently are called ores,

Differentiate between matrix & flux

1. Matrix : The rocky impurities including silica [SiO2], mud etc. associated with the ore is called matrix or gangue.
2. Flux : The substance added to the ore to get rid of the matrix resulting in the formation of a fusible compound slag.

#### Question 4.

Give the (i) common (ii) chemical nadie (iii) formula of two common ores each of aluminium, zinc and iron.

#### Question 5.

In the stages involved in the extraction of metals in general – give reasons for the following.

(i) Dressing of the ore is an essential process in the extraction of metal from its ore.
The ores are found mixed with earthy impurities like sand, clay, lime stone etc. These unwanted impurities in the ore are called gangue or matrix.
The process of removal of gangue from powdered ore is called concentration or ore dressing.
Hence, it is the essential process in the extraction of metal from its ore because it convert’s the impure ore to pure concentrated ore

(ii) An electromagnetic wheel is used in the magnetic separation process of ore from gangue.
An electromagnetic wheel is used in the magnetic separation process of ore from gangue as it seperate’s the magnetic particles from the non-magnetic particles. The magnetic particles get attracted to the magnetic wheel and thus get seperated from the gangue.

(iii) In the froth floatation process, the ore floats on the top & the gangue settles down.
The impurities get wetted by water and remain behind in the tank. Since, the ore is lighter, it comes on the surface with the froth and the impurities(gatlgue) are left behind.

(iv) Magnetic separation is not used during the dressing of bauxite ore in the extraction of aluminium.
Bauxite is concentrated by Leaching (Baeyer’s process). The impure bauxite is treated with concentrated NaOH, Al2O3 and SiO2 dissolve, but Fe2O3 and other basic materials remain insoluble and are removed by filtration.

Aluminium is highly reactive metal, belonging to the III A group of the periodic table. In nature, aluminium is found in the form of its oxide in its ore.
Hence, Magnetic separation is not used during the dressing of bauxite ore in the extraction of aluminium.

(v) Conversion of concentrated ore to its oxide is an essential step in the extraction of metals from the ore, even then the step is not necessary in the metallurgy of aluminium.
Conversion of concentrated ore to its oxide is an essential step in the extraction of metals from the ore, even then the step is not necessary in the metallurgy of aluminium because in metallurgy of aluminium, the ore is already an oxide.

(vi) Roasting of the concentrated ore is carried out in the presence of excess air, while calcination of the concentrated ore in the absence or limited supply of air.

Roasting is a process of converting an ore into its oxide by heating strongly in presence of excess air, so that oxygen gets added to form the corresponding oxide. It is done on sulphide ores in order to remove sulphur as sulphur gets escape in the form of gas.

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