Water Concise Class-9 ICSE Chemistry Selina Solutions Ch-3

Water Concise Class-9 ICSE Chemistry Selina Solutions Ch-3.  Step By Step Selina Concise Solutions of Chapter-3 Water including Figure related, Fill in the blanks, Shot and long type Answer of Questions. We provide Solutions of  Exercise-3(A), Exercise-3(B) and Exercise-3(C) of water Chapter-3 Selina Solutions for ICSE Class-9. Visit official website cisce for detail about class-9 Chemistry.

Water Concise Class-9 ICSE Chemistry Selina Solutions Ch-3


–: Select Topics :– 

Notes on Water

Exercise-3(A),

Exercise-3(B),

Exercise-3(C).


Notes  in ICSE Class 9 Chemistry Chapter 3 Water

Please make self written notes on following topics

  • Water – Properties, water as a solvent and use of water
  • Solutions- Type of solutions, Saturated , Unsaturated and Super Saturated
  • various method to express The concentration of a solution
  • Solubility- Solubility curve its use effect of temperature and pressure
  • Hydrated and anhydrous substances- Definition and example
  • Properties of hydrated and anhydrous substances
  • Soft and hard water- properties, merits and demerits, Process of temporary and permanent hardness removal with reaction

Water Concise Class-9 ICSE Chemistry Selina Solutions Ch-3

Exe-3 A

Question 1

Water exists in all three states. Discuss.

Answer 1

In the Free State, water occurs in the solid, liquid and gaseous states.

(a) Solid state: A large amount of fresh water is found in the form of snow or ice.

(b) Liquid state: Most of the water present in oceans and found in streams, rivers, lakes, ponds and springs on land is water in the liquid state.

(c) Gaseous state: Water vapour present in the air is in the gaseous state. Water vapour condenses in the sky to form clouds. Mist and fog are also examples of water in the gaseous form

Question 2

Why water is considered a compound?

Answer 2

Water is considered a compound because it is made of two elements hydrogen and oxygen combined in the ratio 1:8 by mass.

Mass ratio of elements H2O

H : O, 2 × 1 : 16 × 1 = 1 : 8

(Atomic mass of H = 1, O = 16)

Components of water cannot be separated by physical methods but can be separated by electrolysis of water.

Question 3

(a) Why does temperature in Mumbai and Chennai not fall as low as it does in Delhi?

(b) Give the properties of water responsible for controlling the temperature of our body.

Answer 3

a) The temperature in costal cities like Mumbai and Chennai do not fall as low as in Delhi because these cities are situated in the coastal areas. Due to high specific heat capacity, the presence of a large amount of water is able to modify the climate of the nearby land areas making them warmer in winter and cooler in summer. So, the temperature does not fall as low as it does in Delhi.

b) Our body is almost 65% of water, and it has the property of specific heat. Due to high specific heat capacity, the      presence of a large amount of water is able to modify the climate of the body and control the temperature of our body, which is warm in winter and cool in summer.

Question 4 

‘Water is the universal solvent’. Comment.

Answer 4

Water dissolves many substances forming an aqueous Solution. It can dissolve solids, liquids and gases. When a solid dissolves in water, the solid is the solute, the water is the solvent and the resultant liquid is the Solution. So, it is said that water is a universal solvent. In other words, water can dissolve nearly every substance.

Question 5

What causes the violence associated with torrential rain?

Answer 5

The sudden release of the latent heat of condensation causes the violence associated with torrential rain.

Question 6

(a) Which property of water enables it to modify the climate?

(b) Density of water varies with temperature. What are its consequences?

(c) What is the effect of impurities present in the water on the melting point and boiling point of water?

Answer 6

(a)Due to the high specific heat capacity, the presence of a large amount of water is able to modify the climate.

(b)The property of anomalous expansion of water enables marine life to exist in the colder regions of the world, because even when water freezes on the top, it is still liquid below the ice layer, as the density of water is greater than that of ice.

(c)The boiling point of water increases due to the presence of dissolved impurities.

The freezing point of water decreases due to the presence of dissolved impurities.

Question 7

How do fishes and aquatic animals survive when the pond gets covered with thick ice?

Answer 7

Even though ponds covered with thick ice, beneath there will be water because of the maximum density level of water which helps the fishes and aquatic animals survive

Question 8

The properties of water are different from the properties of the elements of which it is formed. Discuss.

Answer 8

Water is formed by the combination of Hydrogen and Oxygen in the ration of 2:1. When the two elements are joined chemically, the atoms lose their individual properties and have different properties from the elements by which they are made. Water remains liquid in room temperature whereas Hydrogen and Oxygen are gases which when combine changes the state due to the chemical reaction

Question 9

How is aquatic life benefited by the fact that water has maximum density at 4oC?

Answer 9

The property of anomalous expansion of water enables aquatic life to exist because water freezes on the surface of the water body, but it is still liquid below the ice layer.

Question 10

What are the observations and conclusions when tap water is boiled and evaporated in a water glass?

Answer 10 

When tap water is boiled and evaporated:

Observations:

(a) A number of concentric rings of solid matter are seen on the watch glass after evaporation of tap water.

Conclusion:

(b) Tap water contains dissolved salts, minerals and impurities.

Question 11

What is the importance of dissolved salts in water?

Answer 11

Importance of dissolved salts in water:

(a)Dissolved salts provide specific taste to water.

(b)Dissolved salts act as micronutrients for the growth and development of living beings.

Question 12 

State the importance of the suitability of CO2 and O2 in water.

Answer 12

They add taste to water for drinking purposes.

Question 13

How is air dissolved in water different from ordinary air?

Answer 13 

Oxygen is more soluble in water than nitrogen. Air dissolved in water contains a higher percentage of oxygen (30-35%). Oxygen is only 21% in ordinary air. In this way, air dissolved in water is different from ordinary air.

Question 14

Identify A, B, C, and D first one is done for you.

Latent heat of water

Answer 14

When a solid changes into a liquid, it absorbs heat equal to the latent heat of fusion. When a liquid changes into a solid, it loses heat equal to the latent heat of solidification.

a liquid changes into a gas, it absorbs heat equal to the latent heat of vaporisation. When a gas condenses into a liquid, it loses heat equal to the latent heat of condensation.

Question 15

Explain why:

(a)Boiled or distilled water tastes flat.

(b)Ice at zero degrees centigrade has greater cooling effect than water at 0oC.

(c)Burns caused by steam are more severe than burns caused by boiling water.

(d)Rivers and lakes do not freeze easily?

(e)Air dissolved in water contains a higher proportion of oxygen.

(f)If distilled water is kept in a sealed bottle for a long time, it leaves etchings on the surface of the glass.

(g)Rain water does not leave behind concentric rings when boiled.

Answer 15

(a)Boiled water tastes flat because it does not contain dissolved matter such as air, carbon dioxide and other minerals.

(b)Ice at 0°C gives more cooling effect than water at 0°C because at 0°C ice absorbs 336 J per gram of energy to melt to 0°C water.

(c)Burns caused by steam are more severe than burns caused by boiling water because of high specific latent heat of condensation. 2268 J/g of heat is released when 1 g of steam condenses to form 1 gm of water.

(d)Due to the high specific latent heat of solidification of water, rivers and lakes do not freeze easily.

(e)Air dissolved in water contains a higher percentage of oxygen because the solubility of oxygen in water is more than that of oxygen in air.

(f)If distilled water is kept in a sealed bottle for a long time, it etches the surface of glass because substances which are apparently insoluble in water actually dissolve in minute traces in water.

(g)Rain water does not leave concentric rings when boiled because rain water does not contain dissolved solids.


Exercise – 3(B)

 Selina Solutions Chapter-3 Water ICSE Concise Chemistry

Question 1 

Explain the terms:

(a)Solution

(b)Solute

(c)Solvent

Answer 1

(a)SolutionA Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, the components of which cannot be seen separately.

(b)SoluteA solute is the substance which dissolves in a solvent to form a Solution.

(c)SolventA solvent is the medium in which a solute dissolves. 

Question 2

Explain why a hot saturated Solution of potassium nitrate forms crystals as it cools.

Answer 2

Solubility of nitrates decreases with a fall in temperature. Thus, when a hot saturated Solution of potassium nitrate cools, it forms crystals as it separates from the Solution.

Question 3

Give three factors which affect the solubility of a solid solute in a solvent.

Answer 3

Three factors on which the solubility of a solid depend:

(i)Temperature

(ii)Nature of the solid

(iii)Nature of the solvent

Question 4

(a) If you are given some copper sulphate crystals, how would you proceed to prepare its saturated Solution at room temperature?

(b) How can you show that your Solution is really saturated?

Answer 4

(a)Take 100 g of distilled water in a beaker. Add to this one gram of copper sulphate crystals.

(b) This mixture with the help of a glass rod and dissolve the copper sulphate crystals. Similarly, go on dissolving more copper sulphate (1 gram at a time) with constant and vigorous stirring. A stage is reached when no more copper sulphate dissolves. It is called a saturated Solution at this temperature.

Question 5

(a) Define (i) Henry’s law and (ii) Crystallisation (iii) Seeding.

(b)State the different methods of crystallisation.

Answer 5

(a) 

(I) Henry’s law:

At any given temperature, the mass of a gas dissolved in a fixed volume of a liquid or Solution is directly proportional to the pressure on the surface of a liquid.

(ii) Crystallisation:

It is the process by which crystals of a substance separate out on cooling its hot saturated Solution.

(iii) Seeding:

This process of inducting crystallisation by adding a crystal of pure substance into saturated solution is called seeding.

(b)

In the laboratory, crystals may be obtained by the following methods: 

(i)By cooling a hot saturated Solution gently

(ii)By cooling a fused mass

(iii)By sublimation

(iv)By slowly evaporating a saturated Solution

Question 6

What would you observe when crystals of copper (II) sulphate and iron (II) sulphate are separately heated in two test tubes strongly?

Answer 6

Action of heat on copper (II) sulphate crystals

When copper (II) sulphate crystals are heated in a hard glass test tube, the following observations are observed:

Action of heat on copper with reaction (ii) Sulphate

(i)The crystals are converted to a powdery substance.

(ii)The crystals lose their blue coloration on further heating.

(iii)Steaming vapors are produced inside the tube which condense near the mouth of the tube to form a colorless liquid.

(iv)On further heating, steam escapes from the mouth of the tube and water gets collected in a beaker placed under the mouth of the tube.

(v)On further heating, the residue changes to a white powder and steam stops coming out.

CuSO4.5H2O →  CuSO4 + 5H2O

 

Action of heat on iron (II) sulphate

When iron (II) sulphate is heated in a test tube, the following is observed:

(i)The crystals crumble to a white powder and a large amount of steam and gas are given out.

(ii)On strong heating, a brown residue of ferric oxide (Fe2O3) is produced and a mixture of SO2 and SO3 is given off.

Action of heat on ferous sulphate

Question 7

Give the names and formulae of two substances in each case:

(a)Hydrated substance

(b)Anhydrous substance

(c)Liquid drying agent

(d)A basic drying agent

Answer 7

(a)

(i)  Washing soda crystals: Na2CO3.10H2O

(ii) Blue vitriol: CuSO4.5 H2O

(b)

(i) Table salt: NaCl

(ii) Nitre: KNO3

(c)Sulphuric acid: H2SO4

(d)Quick lime: CaO

Question 8

What is the effect of temperature on solubility of KNO3 and CaSO4 in water?

Answer 8

Solubility of potassium nitrate (KNO3) in water increases with an increase in temperature.

Solubility of calcium sulphate (CaSO4) in water decreases with an increase in temperature.

Question 9

Solubility of NaCl at 40oC is 36.5 g. What is meant by this statement?

Answer 9

Solubility of NaCl at 40°C is 36.5 g means that 36.5 g of NaCl dissolves in 100 g of water at a temperature of 40°C.

Question 10

Which test will you carry out to find out if a given Solution is saturated or unsaturated or supersaturated?

Answer 10

A Solution in which more of a solute can be dissolved at a given temperature is an unsaturated Solution.

The Solution in which no more solute can be dissolved at a given temperature is a saturated Solution at that temperature.

Solution in which some solute separates on cooling slightly is a super saturated Solution.

Question 11

What is the effect of pressure on solubility of gases? Explain with an example.

Answer 11

With an increase in pressure, the solubility of a gas in water increases.

With an increase in temperature, the solubility of a gas in water decreases.

For example, the solubility of carbon dioxide in water under normal atmospheric pressure is low, but when the water surface is subjected to higher pressure, a lot more of CO2 gas gets dissolved in it.

Similarly, in case of soda water, on opening the bottle, the dissolved gas rapidly bubbles out because the pressure on the surface of the water suddenly decreases.

Question 12

State the term:

(a)A Solution where solvent is a liquid other than water.

(b)When a substance absorbs moisture on exposure to moist air and dissolves in the absorbed water and turned to Solution.

(c)A substance which contains water of crystallisation.

(d)When a substance absorbs moisture from the atmosphere but does not form a Solution.

(e)When a compound loses its water of crystallisation on exposure to dry air.

(f)The substance that can remove hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the ratio of 2:1(in the form of water) from the compound.

Answer 12 

(a)Non-aqueous Solution

(b)Deliquescence

(c)Hydrated substance

(d)Hygroscope

(e)Efflorescence

(f)Dehydrating agent

Question 13

Explain why:

(a)Water is an excellent liquid to use in cooling systems.

(b)A Solution is always clear and transparent.

(c)Lakes and rivers do not suddenly freeze in the winters.

(d)The solute cannot be separated from a Solution by filtration.

(e)Fused CaCl2 or conc. H2SO4 is used in a desiccator.

(f)Effervescence is seen on opening a bottle of soda water.

(g)Table salts become sticky on exposure to humid air during the rainy season.

Answer 13

(a)Water is an excellent liquid to use in cooling systems because of its high specific heat.

(b)A water-soluble solid disappears in a Solution where the solvent is water, and water has the property of being clear and transparent. So, the Solution is also clear and transparent.

(c) Lakes and rivers do not freeze suddenly in winters 

because of the high specific latent heat of solidification, i.e. the amount of heat released when 1 g of water solidifies to form 1 g of ice at 0°C. It is about 336 J/g or 80 cal/g.

(d)The component which dissolves in a solvent is known as a solute. So, it cannot be separated from a Solution by filtration. However, filtration is used when the solute is insoluble in the Solution.

(e)Fused CaCl2 or concentrated H2SO4 is deliquescent in nature, i.e. it absorbs moisture, and hence, these are used in desiccators as drying agents.

(f)Carbon dioxide is dissolved in soda water under pressure. On opening the bottle, the pressure on the surface of water suddenly decreases; therefore, the solubility of CO2 in water decreases and the gas rapidly bubbles out.

(g)Table salt becomes sticky on exposure during the rainy season, because it generally contains a small percentage of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride as impurities. These impurities absorb moisture from the monsoon air due to their deliquescent nature, and thus, table salt become sticky.

Question 14 

Normally, solubility of crystalline solid increases with temperature. Does it increase uniformly in all cases? Name a substance whose solubility:

(a)Increases rapidly with temperature.

(b) solubility  Increases gradually with temperature.

(c) Increases slightly with temperature.

(d) Initially increases then decreases with rise in temperature.

Answer 14

(a)Potassium nitrate

(b)Potassium chloride

(c)Sodium chloride

(d)Calcium sulphate

Question 15

What are drying or desiccating agents? Give examples.

Answer 15

These are substances which can readily absorb moisture from other substances without chemically reacting with them.

Examples:

Phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5), quick lime (CaO)

Question 16

Complete the following table:

Common Name Chemical Name Formula Acid, base or salt Efflorescent,

hygroscopic or deliquescent substance

Solid caustic potash
Quick lime
Oil of vitriol
Washing soda
Solid caustic soda
Blue vitriol


Answer 16

Common Name Chemical Name Formula Acid, base or salt Efflorescent,

hygroscopic or deliquescent substance

Solid caustic potash Potassium hydroxide KOH Base Deliquescent substance
Quick lime Calcium oxide CaO Base Hygroscopic substance
Oil of vitriol Sulphuric acid H2SO4 Acid Hygroscopic substance
Washing soda Hydrated sodium carbonate Na2CO3.10H2O Salt Efflorescent substance
Solid caustic soda Sodium hydroxide NaOH Base Deliquescent substance
Blue vitriol  Copper sulphate  CuSO4  Salt  Efflorescent substance

 

Question 17 

In which of the following substances will there be

(a)Increase in mass

(b)Decrease in mass

(c)No change in mass when they are exposed to air?

Sodium chloride

Iron

Conc. sulphuric acid

Table salt

Sodium carbonate crystals

Answer 17 

(a)Increase in mass: Iron and conc. sulphuric acid

(b)Decrease in mass: Sodium carbonate crystals

(c)No change in mass: Sodium chloride

Question 18

State the methods by which hydrated salts can be made anhydrous.

Answer 18

Hydrated salts can be converted to anhydrous substances by heating and also when exposed to dry air.

Example:

Gaber’s salt becomes powdery anhydrous sodium sulphate when exposed to dry air.

Glaber Reaction


Exercise – 3(C)

 Solutions of Chapter-3 Water for Selina Concise Chemistry Class 9

Question 1

What is the composition of water? In what volume its elements combine?

Answer 1

The composition of water is 2 atoms of hydrogen with 1 atom of oxygen (H2O).

By number of atoms, they combine in the ratio 2:1.

Question 2

What is the use of solubility of oxygen and carbon dioxide in water?

Answer 2 

Air dissolved in water is biologically very important.

Oxygen dissolved in water is used by marine life like fish for respiration, and thus, marine life is sustained.

Aquatic plants make use of dissolved carbon dioxide in photosynthesis to prepare food.

Carbon dioxide dissolved in water reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium bicarbonate.

Marine organisms such as oysters and snails extract calcium carbonate from calcium bicarbonate to build their shells.

Question 3

Hot saturated Solution of sodium nitrate forms crystals as it cools. Why?

Answer 3

Solubility of sodium nitrate decreases with a fall in temperature. Thus, when a hot saturated Solution of sodium nitrate cools, it forms crystals as it separates from the Solution.

Question 4

What are hydrous substances? Explain with examples.

Answer 4

Substances which contain water molecules along with salt are hydrated substances.

Examples: Sodium carbonate dehydrate: Na2CO3.10H2O

Copper sulphate pentahydrate: CuSO4.5H2O

Question 5

Name three methods [CM1] by which hydrous substances can be made anhydrous.

Answer 5

Methods by which hydrous substances can be made anhydrous:

By heating and by Exposure to dry air

Question 6

What is the importance of dissolved impurities in water?

Answer 6

The dissolved impurities in water are salts and minerals.

Dissolved salts provide specific taste to water.

Salts and minerals are essential for growth and development.

They supply the essential minerals needed by our body.

Question 7 

State two ways by which a saturated Solution can be changed to unsaturated Solution.

Answer 7

On heating, a saturated Solution becomes unsaturated and more solute can be dissolved in the Solution.

By adding more solvent, a saturated Solution can be made unsaturated.

Question 8 

What do you understand by?

(a)Soft water

(b)Hard water

(c)Temporary hard water

(d)Permanent hard water

Answer 8

(a)Water is said to be soft when the water containing sodium salts easily gives lather with soap.

(b)Water is said to be hard when it does not readily form lather with soap.

(c)Water which contains only hydrogen carbonates of calcium and magnesium is called temporary hard water.

(d)Water containing sulphates and chlorides of magnesium and calcium is called permanent hard water.

Question 9

What are the causes for?

(a)Temporary hardness

(b)Permanent hardness

Answer 9

(a)The presence of hydrogen carbonates of calcium and magnesium makes water temporarily hard.

(b)The presence of sulphates and chlorides of magnesium and calcium makes water permanently hard.

Question 10 

What are the advantages of (i) soft water and (ii) hard water?

Answer 10

Advantages of soft water:

1) When the water is soft, you use much less soap and fewer cleaning products. Your budget will reflect your savings.

2)Plumbing will last longer. Soft water is low in mineral content and therefore does not leave deposits in the pipes.

3)Clothes last longer and remain bright longer if they are washed in soft water.

Advantages of hard water:

1) Water free from dissolved salts has a very flat taste. The presence of salts in hard water makes it tasty. So, hard water is used in making beverages and wines.

2) Calcium and magnesium salts present in small amounts in hard water are essential for bone and teeth development.

3) Hard water checks the poisoning of water by lead pipes. When these pipes are used for carrying water, some lead salts dissolve in water to make it poisonous. Calcium sulphate present in hard water forms insoluble lead sulphate in the form of a layer inside the lead pipe and this checks lead poisoning.

Question 11

What are stalagmites and stalactites? How are they formed?

 Answer 11

In some limestone caves, conical pillar-like objects hang from the roof and some rise from the floor. These are formed by water containing dissolved calcium hydrogen carbonate continuously dropping from the cracks in the rocks. Release of pressure results in the conversion of some hydrogen carbonate to calcium carbonate.

Ca (HCO3)2 → CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O

This calcium carbonate little by little and slowly deposit on both roof and floor of the cave.

The conical pillar which grows downwards from the roof is called stalactite and the one which grows upward from the floor of the cave is called stalagmite.

These meet after a time. In a year, some grow less than even a centimetre, but some may be as tall as 100 cm.

CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Ca (HCO3)2

MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Mg (HCO3)2

If the water flows over beds of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), a little bit of gypsum gets dissolved in water and makes it hard.

Question 12 

Name the substance which makes water (i) temporarily hard and (ii) permanently hard.

Answer 12

(i)Hydrogen carbonates of calcium and magnesium

(ii)Sulphates and chlorides of magnesium and calcium

Question 13

Give equations to show what happens when temporary hard water is

(a)Boiled

(b)Treated with slaked lime

Answer 13

(a) when boiled

Ca (HCO3)2 → CaCO3 + H2O + CO2

Mg (HCO3)2 → MgCO3 + H2O + CO2

(b) when Treated with slaked lime

Ca(HCO3)2+ Ca(OH)2 → 2CaCO3 + 2H2O

Mg (HCO3)2+ Ca(OH)2→ MgCO3 + 2H2O

Question 14

State the disadvantages of using hard water.

Answer 14 disadvantages of using hard water.

It is more difficult to form lather with soap.

Scum may form in a reaction with soap, wasting the soap.

Carbonates of calcium and magnesium form inside kettles. This wastes energy whenever you boil a kettle.

Hot water pipes ‘fur up’. Carbonates of calcium and magnesium start to coat the inside of pipes which can eventually get blocked.

Question 15

What is soap? For what is it used?

Answer 15

Soap is chemically a sodium salt of stearic acid (an organic acid with the formula C17H35COOH) and has the formula C17H35COONa.

Soap is used for washing purposes.

Question 16

What is the advantage of a detergent over soap?

Answer 16

Detergents are more soluble in water than soap and are unaffected by the hardness of water as their calcium salts are soluble in water.

Question 17

Why does the hardness of water render it unfit for use in a (i) boiler and (ii) for washing purposes.

Answer 17

Steam is usually made in boilers which are made of a number of narrow copper tubes surrounded by fire. As the cold water enters these tubes, it is immediately changed into steam, while the dissolved solids incapable of changing into vapour deposit on the inner walls of the tubes.

This goes on and makes the bore of the tubes narrower. The result is that less water flows through the tubes at one time and less steam is produced. When the bore of the tube becomes very narrow, the pressure of the steam increases so much that at times the boiler bursts.

If hard water is used,

calcium and magnesium ions of the water combine with the negative ions of the soap to form a slimy precipitate of insoluble calcium and magnesium usually called soap curd (scum).

Formation of soap curd will go on as long as calcium and magnesium ions are present. Till then, no soap lather will be formed and cleaning of clothes or body will not be possible. Moreover, these precipitates are difficult to wash from fabrics and sometimes form rusty spots if iron salts are present in water.

Question 18

Explain with equation, what is noticed when permanent hard water is treated with

(a)Slaked time

(b)Washing soda

Answer 18 

(a) Slaked lime

Ca (HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2Aero 2CaCO3 + 2H2O
Mg (HCO3)2+ Ca(OH)Aero  MgCO3 + CaCO+ 2H2O

Lime is first thoroughly mixed with water in a tank and then fed into another tank containing hard water. Revolving paddles thoroughly mix the two Solutions. Most of the calcium carbonate settles down. If there is any solid left over, it is removed by a filter. This is known as Clarke’s process.

(b) Washing soda

When washing soda or soda ash is added to hard water, the corresponding insoluble carbonates settle down and can be removed by filtration.

Ca (HCO3)2 + Na2CO3Aero CaCO3 + 2NaHCO3

Mg (HCO3)2+ Na2CO3Aero MgCO3 + 2NaHCO3

Question 19

Explain the permit method, how can it be used for softening hard water.

Answer 19

Permit is an artificial zeolite. Chemically, it is hydrated sodium aluminium or tho silicate with the formula Na2Al2Si2O8.XH2O. For the sake of convenience, let us give it the formula Na2P.

 artificial zeolite permit method

A tall cylinder is loosely fille with lumps of permit. When hard water containing calcium and magnesium ions percolates through these lumps, ions exchange. Sodium permit is slowly changed into calcium and magnesium permit, and the water becomes soft with the removal of calcium and magnesium ions.

When no longer active, permit is regenerated by running a concentrated Solution of brine over it and removing calcium chloride formed by repeated washing.

CaP + 2NaCl → Na2P + CaI2

 – : End of Water Concise Selina Solutions :-

Return to – Concise Selina Chemistry Solutions for ICSE Class-9


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Water

Prove Water exists in all three states?

In free State, water is a liquid. When water gets freezes to 0 degree Celsius, it will turn to ice, which is in solid form. When we heat water to 100 0c, it vaporises into water vapours, which are the gaseous state of water; hence, it is said that water exists in all the three states.

Why water is considered a compound?

Water is made up of two elements Hydrogen and Oxygen, which are in the ratio of 1:8 by mass; hence, water is considered as a compound.

Is Water is a universal solvent?

Water dissolves most of the compound to form a solution. Water can dissolve all three states of matter solids, liquids and gases. Hence water is called a universal solvent.

What is the importance of dissolved salts in the water?

Importance of dissolved salts in water are as follows

  • Dissolved minerals and salts are essential for the growth of plants
  • Dissolved salts add taste to water
  • Dissolved salts and minerals in water provide essential minerals required for our body.

How is air dissolved in water different from ordinary air?

Ordinary air consists of 78% Nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 0.01% carbon dioxide. But Nitrogen is less soluble in water when compared to carbon dioxide and Oxygen. Hence the composition of air dissolved in different than ordinary air. Composition of air dissolved in water is 33% Oxygen when compared to 21% in ordinary air; Nitrogen is 66% when compared to 78% of ordinary air and carbon dioxide is 1% when compared to 0.01% in ordinary air.

Why Rivers and lakes do not freeze easily?

Ice is a good insulator and bad conductor of heat because of this portions of a lake or river that are exposed to the cold winter air will freeze into ice, and this ice insulates the water below from further rapid freezing.

what is  Solution?

The solution is a homogenous mixture of two or more components whose components cannot be seen separately.

Explain solvent?

The solvent is a medium in which solute dissolves

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