Srijan Class-9 Health and Hygiene ICSE Biology Solutions Ch-15

Srijan Class-9 Health and Hygiene ICSE Biology Solutions Ch-15. We Provide Solutions of Concept Check 1 to 4, Very Short Ans, Short Ans, Long Ans, Multiple Choice Type  Application / Skill ( Figure Based ) Questions by expert teachers as per ICSE board guidelines. Visit official Website CISCE for detail information about ICSE Board Class-9.

Srijan Class-9 Health and Hygiene ICSE Biology Solutions

Solutions of Srijan Class-9 Health and Hygiene ICSE Biology Ch-15

Board ICSE
Publications Srijan Publication
Subject Biology
Class 9th
writer Veer Bala Rastogi
Chapter-15 Health and Hygiene
Topics Solutions of Concept Check 1 to 4, Very Short Ans, Short Ans, Long Ans, MCQ, Application Skill Based Questions
Edition 2021-2022

Concept Check 1 (Page 171)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

1. A disease affecting a large number of people is called …………

2. The two diseases developed by viruses are ………….. and ………..

3. The causative agents of ringworm and athlete’s foot are ………….

4 Two agents or infectious diseases are ………….. and …………..

5. Two diseases caused by worms are ………… and ………..

6. Disease causing biological agents are called ……………..

7. Two examples of noncommunicable diseases are…………….

8 Tuberculosis and AlDS are …………….. diseases

9. Mumps is caused by ……………

Answer:

1. Epidermic Disease

2. Common cold, Aids

3. Fungi

4. Bacteria, Viruses

5. Ascariasis, Filariasis

6. Infectious agent

7. Allergies, cancer

8. Infectious disease

9. Viruses


Concept Check 2 (Page 175)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. Rice water-like stool is a symptom of ……………..

2. The causative agent of cholera is …………….

3. The vaccine used to cure tuberculosis is ………………..

4. Spread of …………… occurs through sneezing, coughing or spitting by the patient.

Answer:

1. Cholera

2. Vibrio cholerae

3. Bacillus calmette – Guerin (BCG)

4. Tuberculosis


Concept Check 3 (Page 178)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

1. The HV attacks ……………  system of the body.

2. The causative agent of chickenpox is ……………

3. Two forms of dysentery are ……………. dysentery and …………… dysentery.

4. Hepatitis is a severe disorder of the …………..

5. Hepatitis is caused by ……………

Answer:

1. Immune

2. Varicella Zoster virus (vzv)

3. Bacillary, Amebic

4. Liver

5. Hepatitis virus


Concept Check 4 (Page 182)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

State whether the following statements are true or false. If false, write the correct statements by changing the incorrect word/words only.

1. Dysentery is a disease of liver.

2 Malaria is caused by different species of Plasmodium.

3 Sleeping sickness is caused by taking sleeping pills.

4. Ascariasis affects our lungs.

5. Taeniasis is caused by eating undercooked pork.

6 Filariasis is spread by Aedes mosquito.

Answer:

1. False

2. True

3. False

4. False

5. True

6. True


A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE, (Page 183)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

Q-1. Name the following:

(a) Three diseases caused by bacteria.

Ans- Cholera, Typhoid, Tuberculosis

(b) Two diseases caused by parasitic worms.

Ans- Ascariasis, Taeniasis

(c) Two diseases caused by viruses

Ans- AIDS, Chickenpox

(d) Any two diseases transmitted by housefly.

Ans- Cholera, Typhoid

(e) Two kinds of dysentery.

Ans- Bacillary, amebic

Q-2. State whether the following statements are true or false.

(a) Goitre is endemic in Sub-himalayan regions of India.

(b) Hay fever and asthma are allergies.

(c) AIDS is caused by a bacterium.

(d) Tapeworm infection spreads by eating infected chicken

(e) Allergy is due to hypersensitivity of tissue to certain substances

(f) Mosquitoes are the source of dysentery.

(g) Typhoid is caused by a protozoan

(h) Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

Answer:

(a) True

(b) False

(c) False

(d) False

(e) True

(f) False

(g) True

(h) True


B. Short Answer Type Questions (Page 183)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

1. Write short notes on the following:

(a) Congenital diseases

Ans- Congenital diseases are anatomical or physiological abnormalities present since birth.

(b) Infectious diseases

Ans- Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They’re normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person

(c) Water borne diseases

Ans- The result: dangerous diseases like cholera and typhoid fever. Other waterborne diseases include diarrhea, dysentery, polio and meningitis. Unclean water for washing can cause skin and infectious eye disease such as Trachoma

(d) Potable water

Ans- Potable water is the water which is filtered and treated properly and is finally free from all the contaminants and harmful bacteria. This purified water is fit to drink, or it can be called ‘drinking water’ after the purification processes and is safe for both cooking and drinking

Q-2. Define the following:

(a) Infection

Ans- An infection is the invasion of an organism’s body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce

(b) Pathogen

Ans- Share on Pinterest Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are all types of pathogens. A pathogen brings disease to its host. Another name for a pathogen is an infectious agent, as they cause infections. As with any organism, pathogens prioritize survival and reproduction

(c) Incubation period

Ans- the period between exposure to an infection and the appearance of the first symptoms

(d) Disease

Ans- “A disease is a condition that deteriorates the normal functioning of the cells, tissues, and organs.” Diseases are often thought of as medical conditions that are characterized by their signs and symptoms

(e) Endemic disease

Ans- An endemic disease is the one that is always present in a population, e.g. chickenpox, malaria, etc. Endemic diseases are relatively rare and not as widespread as an epidemic. It is always prevalent in the population that lives in that area. These areas contain viruses, bacteria or parasites which can transmit the diseases to humans.

(f) Sporadic disease

Ans- Diseases that are seen only occasionally, and usually without geographic concentration, are called sporadic diseases. Examples of sporadic diseases include tetanus, rabies, and plague.

Q-3. Explain the following:

(a) Eating places must be kept free of flies.

Ans- Eating places must be kept free of flies as flies carry bacteria and germs that cause various diseases.

(b) Hands must be properly washed before eating food.

Ans- Why Is It Important to Wash Your Hands Before Eating? When you eat a meal without washing your hands, the germs on your hands go into your mouth. Germs can cause infections like sore throats and stomach flu. Handwashing is vital because our hands spread illnesses.

(c) One should breathe by nose and never by mouth.

Ans- One should breathe by nose and never by mouth because there are many dust particles and harmful microorganisms in the air. But if we inhale that air with our nose, the hairs present will prevent us from dust particles and harmful microorganisms. … So, we should breathe with our nose instead of mouth

(d) We must keep our eatables well covered and away from flies.

Ans- Keeping food covered protects your food from harmful bacteria and objects or chemicals from getting into the food. There are certain defenses that can be used for raw and ready-to-eat foods to prevent the harmful bacteria from spreading. You can package the food properly in cling foil

(e) There should not be any stagnant water near your surroundings particularly during the rainy season.

Ans-Stagnant water provides breeding ground to several form of insects, especially to mosquitoes. Mosquito acts as vector for several diseases like malaria, filaria, dengue.. yellow fever, etc. If our surrounding will remain free from stagnant water, mosquitoes will not be able to find the place of breeding and ultimately their population will decrease. This will prevent the spread of insect-borne diseases.

(f) Flies should not be allowed to sit on eatables.

Ans- It informs that flies vomit and slobber on your food. They are also capable of transmitting diseases. The longer a fly hovers around your food or sits there, more are the chances of harmful bacteria, parasites and viruses being transferred to your food

(g) Our kitchen should be free from flies and cockroaches.

Ans- Flies and cockroaches transmit germs of many diseases. Hence they should be kept away from our kitchens so as to prevent spread of diseases.

Q-4. Differentiate between the following:

(a) Communicable and noncommunicable diseases

Ans- Communicable diseases are the diseases which passes from one individual to another individual. They are generally caused by some bacteria, viruses or any other pathogens. For example, malaria, AIDS etc. Non-communicable diseases are the diseases which does not spread from one person to another person

(b) Direct transmission and indirect transmission of diseases

Ans-There are two types of contact transmission: direct and indirect. Direct contact transmission occurs when there is physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person. Indirect contact transmission occurs when there is no direct human-to-human contact

(c) Degenerative diseases and deficiency diseases

Ans-

Degenerative Diseases:-They are mainly caused by the malfunctioning of vital organs in the body due to the deterioration of cells over time. Diseases such as osteoporosis show characteristics of degenerative diseases in the form of increased bone weakness. This increases the risk of bone fractures

Deficiency Diseases:- They occur due to the deficiencies of hormones, minerals, nutrients, and vitamins. For example, diabetes occurs due to an inability to produce or utilize insulin, goiter is mainly caused by iodine deficiency, kwashiorkor is caused by a lack of proteins in the diet. Vitamin B1 deficiency causes beriberi

(d) Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes

Ans-Culex and Anopheles are two mosquito genera that serve as intermediate hosts of vector-borne diseases. Culex causes filaria and West Nile virus infection while Anopheles causes malaria. Therefore, the main difference between Culex and Anopheles is the type of diseases caused by them

(e) Personal and public hygiene

Ans-Hygiene is a series of practices performed to preserve health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases.” Personal hygiene refers to maintaining the body’s cleanliness


C. Long Answer Type Questions (Page 183)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

Q-1. What is tuberculosis? How can it be prevented?

Ans : –Tuberculosis or ‘TB’ is a very common and dangerous communicable infectious disease found in all parts of the world especially in developing countries like India. This is the reason why we must be aware of this disease. Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by a microorganism called Mycobacterium tuberculin

Tuberculosis  Symptoms 

Tuberculosis is a chronic disease. It gradually starts and remains for a long time. Active pulmonary Tuberculosis is symptomatic and infectious. It shows the following symptoms-

  • Persistent cough for 3-4 weeks

  • Continuous fever

  • Chest pain

  • Blood in the cough of the patient

  • Weight loss

  • Loss of appetite

  • Increase of hoarseness in voice

  • Fatigue

Tuberculosis Treatment 

Treatment of Tuberculosis is very important.  Untreated TB can be lethal.

  • Antitubercular drugs like INH, Rifampicin are given to the patients for a time period of 4-6 months. The success of the treatment majorly depends upon the patient.

  • If one discontinues the treatment before its completion the disease can return and can become untreatable. The tracing of the progress of the patient during the course of treatment is also very necessary.

DOTS

Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) is a five-point strategy widely accepted and has been proved successful in treating TB. DOTS if applied effectively can prevent multi-drug resistance in the patient.

 Q-2. What is the full form of AlDS? Name its causative agent. How does the transmission of this disease take place?

Ans : – AIDS’ stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. Its causative agent is Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is transmitted from an infected person to a healthy person in the following ways.
(1) Through sexual intercourse, if one of the partner is infected
(2) Through contaminated blood transfusion
(3) The virus from infected mother may cross through the placenta and reach the embryo in the womb

Q-3. Name any four noninfectious diseases and their causes.

Ans :-

NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES CAUSE OF THE DISEASE
Asthma Allergy
Cataract Ageing
Beri-Beri Nutritional deficiency
Cancer Carcinogens like chemicals, tobacco smoking, pollution etc.

Q-4. Name three kinds of mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit.

Ans :- Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, tularemia, dirofilariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River fever, Barmah Forest fever

Q-5. List any three effective methods for controlling houseflies and mosquitoes.

Ans :-

  • Elimination of breeding places for mosquitoes.
  • Spraying on stagnant water with Kerosene or some other greasy oil to kill larvae and pupae. Spraying DDT and other insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes.
  • Biological control by introducing certain fishes like Gambusia which selectively devour on mosquito larvae

Q-6. Describe different ways by which the houseflies contaminate our food.

Ans :- Flies might have landed on garbage, faeces and rotting matter. They can then contaminate the food by transferring the microbes from those surfaces (by contact or defecating). The 6 jointed legs of a housefly can transfer germs from one surface to another. … Someone might accidentally eat the fly together with the food

Q-7. What is contamination of water? How does water get contaminated? What are the harms of contaminated water?

Ans :- Water gets contaminated by the following ways: (i) Many industries discharge harmful chemicals to rivers and streams. (ii) Water gets contaminated when sewage is disposed off in rivers. (iii) Pesticides, weedecides and other chemicals also dissolve in water and get contaminated.


D. Multiple Choice Questions (Page 183)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

Choose the correct answer:

1. The organisms which cause diseases are called

(a) Vectors

(b) Pathogens

(c) Hosts

(d) Parasites

Answer: (a) Vectors

2. Rabies is caused by

(a) Virus

(b) Bacteria

(c) Protozoa

(d) All of these

Answer: (a) Virus

3. Which of the following pairs is correct?

(a) E.coli-Entamoeba histolytica

(b) Culex- Elephantiasis

(c) Bed bug- Kala-azar

(d) Plasmodium – Sleeping sickness

Answer: (b) Culex- Elephantiasis


E Application /Skill-based Questions (Page 183)

(Ch-15 Health and Hygiene Srijan ICSE Class-9 Biology Solutions )

1. Look at the figure and answer the questions that follow:

Look at the figure and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Name the disease carrier shown in the given picture

(b) Where is it found?

(c) Name some diseases spread by it.

(d) How does it harm our articles.

(e) How can it be controlled

Answer:

(a) Cockroach

(b) They are found in kitchen, hotels, sewers etc.

(c) Tuberculosis, Physeter, Typhoid and Leprosy.

(d) They carry disease causing organisms an their legs and body and deposit them on food and utensil.

(e)

  • Remove the food leftover immediately.
  • Spray malathion, BHC (2%).
  • Fumigation of big buildings with HCN.
–: End of Srijan Class-9 Health and Hygiene  ICSE Biology Solutions Ch-15:–

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